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Бухгалтерский учёт
Войное дело

Language focus. Delivery and style


Tempo Vary the speed – don't talk at the same pace all the time. And pause from time to time - a few seconds of silence are sometimes just as effective as words.   Volume This is largely a question of voice projection. There is no need to shout. Vary the volume. A quiet part can contrast with a louder part.   Expressiveness Vary the pitch (high pitch = soprano, low pitch = bass). A good way of varying the pitch is to introduce questions into your presentation. This should force you to raise the pitch a little.   Articulation The sounds will be clearer if you don't rush your words. If you anticipate difficulty in pronouncing certain key words, practise them beforehand. Usually the problem is the syllable stress. Sentence length Avoid reading your text - this should help keep the sentences fairly short.   Register/Style Make your English sound natural - don't use written ' English. Decide how formal the language should be for the audience.   Linkers Use linking expressions to guide the audience through your presentation. Linkers will also help you vary the pace of your presentation.   Emphasizers/Minimizers It's always a good idea to exaggerate a little - it will help to get your message across persuasively.


4. After this lecture Mr. Sverdlov and Mr. Evdokimov went to their hotel and decided to fix received information. They asked each other the following questions:

- What should you take into account during the planning your advert?

- What objectives must be achieved?

- How to choose the right content for your presentation?

- What approach should you use for your presentation?

- How will you organize your content?

- What visual aids can you use?

- Why is rehearsal necessary?

- How should you behave yourself at the beginning of your presentation?

- Are the body language and voice quality important?

- What language should be used during the presentation?

- What tempo and volume are the best in this case?

- Why are linkers necessary?

- Why is it a good idea to exaggerate a little?



Russian colleagues read and translated useful language for presenters with a help of dictionary. Try to do it with them.


Thank you for coming to listen to methis morning, ladies and gentlemen.

In this talk I hope that I'll be able to convince you that...

First, I'm going to deal with...

Then I'll be talking about... That will take about...

After that I'll be happy to answer your questions on...



That's all I have to say about... Now' I'll move on to... So much for... Now I'd like to deal will...


Referring to visuals

As you can see here...

I'd like to draw your attention to these figures, which show...

You'll find the details on page... of the handout/on handout .



We looked at... followed by...

Then I explained the importance of...



Thank you for being so attentive.

And now, if anyone has any questions...

Thank you once again for giving up your time.


Language of group presentations

The group should have a Chairman, who is responsible for introducing the group and what each member will talk about. During the presentation members should take care to hand over to each other properly:

First, I will say a little about the background... Then Jim will... and finally Anita will... Now I'd like to hand you over to Jim, who will be talking about/dealing with... Thank you, Jim. Jim has just told you about... Now it's my task to...


6. Today the lecturer has begun with the homework. At first he has given the translation of useful English phrases for presentation:

- Леди и джентльмены, благодарю Вас за то, что Вы пришли послушать меня сегодня утром.

- В этой беседе, я надеюсь, что смогу убедить Вас, что…

- Сначала, я собираюсь иметь дело с…

- Затем я буду говорить о…

- После этого, я буду готов ответить на Ваши вопросы..

-Это все, о чём я хотел сказать..

- Я хотел бы обратить Ваше внимание на эти цифры, которые показывают…

- Детали Вы найдете на странице…. В раздаточном материале…

- Затем я объяснил важность…

- Спасибо за то, что Вы были так внимательны…

- А теперь, Если у кого-нибудь есть вопросы…

- Спасибо еще раз зато, что уделили мне ваше время...


Tripling 7.

The practice is the best. And our lecturer gives Russian businessmen the following tasks:

Task 1.

Good presenters frequently chunk important points in threes. Look at the following examples:

Our service is swift, efficient, and professional.
What's needed now is time, effort, and money.
This is how the project is to be planned, organized, and managed.
Why does this make more impact?      


Task 2.

Say the following. Stress the words in bold type, especially the last word.

1. The New System is efficient and FAST.
2. The New System is foolproof, efficient and FAST.
3. The new System is economical foolproof, FAST
4. The new System is economical foolproof, efficient and FAST.


Notice that examples 1-3 take about the same time to say. But example 4 is almost impossible to say at normal speed. Three points are usually the most you can comfortably make usually you arrange the points so the one you think is most important comes last. Whenever you make important points, remember the rule of threes.


Task 3.

Match up the statements below:

1. company a. new, well designed and competitively priced.
2. project b. local, expanding and undersupplied.
3. The ideal market is c. thoroughly researched, properly funded and well-run.
4. product d. experienced, highly motivated and well-qualified.
5. manager e. small, flexible and customer-oriented.  

Task 4.

Match up these statements:

What you need to 1. Boost sales A. new plant, proper training and realistic targets.
2. increase productivity B. better pay, better conditions and shorter hours.
3. raise morale C. determination, imagination and guts.
4. be an entrepreneur D. blood, sweat and tears!
5. build a successful company E. better service, bigger discounts and lower prices.


Present the points several times, paying particular attention to stress and rhythm.

Task 5.

Look at the following presentation extract. Listen to how the voice rises and falls. Notice the simple technique:

How did we reach our goals? (Rhetorical Question)
Simple. (Short Response)
By building new plant, (Three-Part Answer)
by taking on more workers,  
by keeping production costs down.    

Notice also the effect of repetition: 'by building ... by taking ...by keeping'.

Apply the same technique to the following. Say them first. Then write them down. The first one has been done for you as an example.


1. What / solution? Simple. Cut expenses / staffing levels / salaries.

What's the solution? Simple. Cut expenses, cut staffing levels, cut salaries.

2. What / answer? Simple. Work harder, / faster, / smarter.

3. Where / best opportunities? It's obvious. In Germany/Japan / Brazil.

4. Can we improve performance? Yes. In terms / output / turnover / profit margin.

5. Change / system and-what / you see? Problems. / Problems / workers / distributors / customers.


Task 6.

Now try these:

1. How can we beat the Koreans? I'll tell you. On reliability /quality/ price. That's how.

2. Does comparative advertising / results? Of course it does. Ask IBM / Apple / Pepsi / They'll tell you.

3. Can market leadership /achieved /computers? Sure it can. Look / Tom Watson /John Sculley/Bill Gates/They did it.

4. How / we doing? Better than ever. The customers like us / the shareholders /the banks / Need I say more?


Present the points above several times, paying particular attention to stress and rhythm. Now try putting the word and before the third point in each example. This gives the third point more impact.


Task 7.

Lists of three are especially memorable. And, throughout history, some of the most famous quotations in all the languages of the world have been lists of three:

Government of the people, by the people, for the people.     Abraham Lincoln
I came, I saw, I conquered.     Julius Caesar
Tell me and I forget; show me and I remember; involve me and I understand.     Ancient Chinese proverb



Study the following well-known quotations and try to say them so that they have an impact. Mark the pauses with a slash (/) and highlight the words you want to stress. Then listen to your teacher and check.


1. "You can fool all the people some of the time and some of the people all the time, but you cannot fool all the people all the time."

Abraham Lincoln

2. "What is a committee? A group of the unwilling, picked from the unfit to do the unnecessary."

Richard Harkness

3. "People can be divided into three groups: those who make things happen, those who watch things happen and those who ask 'What happened?"

John Newbern

4. "This is not the end. It is not even the beginning of the end. But it is, perhaps, the end of the beginning."

Winston Churchill

5. "Coming together is a beginning; keeping together is progress; working together is success."

Henry Ford

6. "Organizations don't have new ideas. Teams don't have new ideas. Individuals have new ideas. That's why you come first."

John Adair

7. "There are three types of lies: lies, damned lies and statistics."

Benjamin Disraeli

8. "The other man's word is an opinion; yours is the truth; and your boss's is law."


9."Most presentations have three basic stages: tell them what you're going to tell them; tell them; tell them what you told them."


10. The old believe everything; the middle-aged suspect everything; the young know everything."

Oscar Wilde

11."All the things I really like to do are either immoral, illegal, or fattening."

Alexander Woollcott

Do you know any famous quotations in your own language which are also lists of three?

Make up one of your own.

Task 8.

Now complete the quotations below using the following sets of words:

Everyone - fool – computer sex - money - power succeed - try – try today - tomorrow - yesterday lead - follow - get nothing - everything - anything  


If at first you don't....................................again. Then quit - no use being a damn fool about it!


I'm done with ..................And God knows I've made enough........................ But................., now that's something you never get tired of.


................makes mistakes. And a ................... keeps making the same mistakes. But the really foul things up you need a ..................... .


............... is the..................... you worried about............. .


.................is as easy as it looks.................takes longer than you think. And if .................can go wrong, it will.


........................or...........................out of the way.


Creating Rapport

Many of the best presentations sound more like conversations. So, during your talk, try to keep referring back to your audience as individuals. There are a lot of expressions you can use which help you to do this. Use them regularly and you can make even a more formal presentation sound conversational.

Task 1.

Match up the following to make a complete presentation extract. Then highlight the most useful expressions.

1. If you're anything like me 2. And if I were to ask you what makes a successful entrepreneur, 3. Now, I know what you're thinking. 4. But, you see, 5. Because there aren't any secrets. 6. Let me ask you something. a. that's just where you're wrong. b. And in many ways, all of us are already entrepreneurs. c. When was the last time you -did something without clearing it with the boss, because it was quicker? d. you'd probably say it's 90% luck. e. you'd never dream of calling yourself an entrepreneur. f. You're thinking: oh no, here we go. He's going to tell us the secrets of entrepreneurship.

Task 2.

Now do the same with these:

1. Exactly. I can see some of you 2. Because I'm sure everyone in this room 3. It's true, isn't it? Given the chance, most of us are happy to take risks and initiatives. Do you see. 4. Now, I'm sure you don't need me to tell you. 5. And it's certainly true that good managers don't necessarily make good entrepreneurs. 6. And we all know what that means, a. don't we? No promotion prospects. b. there's a lot more to entrepreneurism than the ability to take risks. c. But isn't it also true that it's often the really enterprising managers who rind it hardest to fit in? d. has gone behind their boss's back at some time or another. c. what I mean? Everyone has an entrepreneur inside them, righting to get out. f. know what I'm talking about.  



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