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Войное дело

Now let’s remember and enumerate the phrases once again. Match the phrases in column A with those in column B


А: В:
· Вы можете смотреть в корень дела Being the Sales Manager
· Это золотая середина You are quick on the uptake
· Будучи менеджером по продаже Sorry for my interrupting you
· Вот где собака зарыта It is the golden mean
· Если Вы не возражаете I have it at my fingertips
· Вы ловите на лету You can get to the root of it
· Извините меня за то, что я Вас перебиваю If you don’t mind
· Я уже на этом собаку съела That’s the crux of the matter


7. Mr. Sverdlov can not remember the new words. Mr Evdokimov has decided to help him. Look here. At first he enumerates the most difficult for Mr. Sverdlov English words and phrases and explains their meanings.



- Being the Sales Manager – будучи менеджером по продаже;

- If you don’t mind – если Вы не возражаете;

- Sorry for my interrupting – извините меня за то, что я Вас перебиваю;

- I have it at my fingertips - я уже на этом собаку съела;

- That’s the crux of the matter – вот где собака зарыта;

- You can get to the root of it – Вы можете смотреть в корень дела;

- You are quick on the uptake – Вы ловите на лету;

- It is the golden mean – это золотая середина;

- Jack of all trades – мастер на все руки;

- I suppose- я полагаю;

- The entire market – единый рынок;

- The international recognition of our product – международная известность нашего продукта;

- to be prohibited – быть запрещенным;

- compared to early times – сравнивая с прежними временами.


8. Mr. Sverdlov still makes mistakes in grammar. Mr.Volkov helps him to revise some grammar. Let’s also try to do these exercises. Ask your teacher to explain you these rules if you don’t know them.


I. Make the sentences. Use the words given to make them. Use the right tense.

a. Ms. Betty O’Henry and Ms. Lora have been working for a long time in one of the advertising agencies.

( My colleagues, to study, English, for 10 years;

representatives, of this firm, to live, here, since October;

clients, to wait for you, for a long time);

b.They‘ve invited Russian friends.

( She, to get, just, a letter, from her parents;

they, to know, each other, since childhood;

he, to take part, in the exhibition, this week);

c. Mr. Volkov and Mr Evdokimov are discussing with Ms. Betty and Ms. Lora Russian publicity market .

(They, to walk, along the exhibition, now;

she, to answer, their questions, at the moment;

we, to have , negotiations, now);

d.It is interesting to know....

(it, to be, simple, to answer, this question;

it, to be, necessary, to know, this information;

it, to be, important, to take part, in this exhibition);

i.You areinformed very well.

(These people, to be well- known;

my colleague, to be asked ,the question;

our partners, to be invited, to this conference;

perfume and cosmetics, to be promoted, by television);

f.I have to know the development of advertising market.

(He, must, invite, him;

they, to have, to involve, this product;

she, to has, to explain, her coming late);

g.The balance of funds allocated for publicity needs.

(The prices, to start, to rise, last year;

we , to live, not, 5 years ago, in this town;

she, to become, a Sales Manager, last year).


II. Grammar test.

1. Mother asked the children if they … some biscuits for tea.

a. has bought;

b. had bought;

c. was bought;

d. are bought

2. Listen to me when I’m … to you.

a. telling;

b. talking;

c. told;

d. says


3. He gave all his money to me because he … me.

a. would trust;

b. trusted;

c. had trusted;

d. will trust


4. The pupil wasn’t able to do the translation because he … some special terms.

a. hadn’t known;

b. didn’t know;

c. doesn’t know;

d. wasn’t known.


5. Many accidents … by careless driving.

a. are causing;

b. are caused;

c. caused;

d. have been caused


9. Mr. Evdokimov begins to speak to Mr. Sverdlov. Look through these dialogues and find English equivalents for the following Russian phrases:

1.Будучи менеджером по продаже

2.Если Вы не возражаете

3.Извините меня за то, что я Вас перебиваю

4.Я уже на этом собаку съела

5.Вот где собака зарыта

6.Вы можете смотреть в корень дела

7.Вы ловите на лету

8.Это золотая середина

9. Я полагаю

10. Единый рынок

11. международное признание (известность)продукта

12. предприниматели

13. сравнивая с прошлыми временами

14. быть запрещенным

15. Быть мастером на все руки



Read these dialogues and act out similar ones. Use English idioms and phrases.

Dialogue 1.

Mr. Evdokimov: Being the Sales Manager of the advertising company I suppose you must be interested in the international recognition of your product.
Mr. Sverdlov: You can get to the root of it. The entire market gives us such opportunity to bring our product to the international level.
Mr. Evdokimov: Of course. Every businessman is interested in the international recognition of his product...
Mr. Sverdlov: ..But the cash deficit forced the domestic entrepreneurs to pay more attention to their advertising budgets as well as to the fact that publicity agencies have inflated prices.

Dialogue 2.

Mr. Sverdlov: The development of the advertising market follows the development of the entire market of the country.
Mr: Evdokimov: That’s the crux of the matter. I see you are informed very well and can get to the root of it.
Mr. Sverdlov: It’s my job. I have it at my fingertips. Being the Sales Manager of this firm I have to know the development of advertising market in every country very well, because I’m interested in international recognition of our product.
Mr. Evdokimov: Compared to early times when everything was prohibited now the domestic entrepreneurs have more convenient terms to run their business...
Mr. Sverdlov: Sorry for my interrupting you. I think in Russia our businessmen are Jack of all trades...
Mr. Evdokimov: But to reach a success they must always know the golden mean.  

11. Today Mr. Evdokimov and Mr. Smirnov take part in the Sport Goods Exhibition. There are a lot of journalists and Advertising Managers here. Ms. Lora works in the marketing department of a sport shoe manufacturer. She has contacted an advertising agency and asked for suggestions to promote the brand Sporto. That’s why Ms. Lora is here and she’s taken the Russian partners along. Here is the dialogue between them:


Ms. Lora: TV....,TV. I think TV advertising is too expensive. Such exhibitions are cheaper and more convenient for us.
Mr. Volkov: I agree, but you know well TV in our days is an important part of society’s life. It informs, educates and entertains people and also influences the way people look at the world and makes them change their views. It is a great power.
Ms. Lora: But if you were at my place you shouldn’t think about it. I have to run an advertising campaign within a budget of 250. 000 $ - no more.
Mr. Volkov: Quite so. It is a difficult question. I’ve heard you sponsored the local football team last year, but the team performed badly and received very little national television coverage.
Ms. Lora: It’s true, but I hope the football team will do well this year, because they have a rich chairman now, five new players and a new manager.
Mr. Evdokimov: It sounds very promising. But how would you like to promote the brand Sporto?
Ms. Lora: I want the brand name Sporto to be promoted nationally.
Mr. Smirnov: Are you interested in the specifically local market or in the international recognition?
Ms. Lora: I think the international recognition would be a good bonus and I also want some guarantee in terms of increased sales.
Mr. Smirnov: Everything is good. But I think TV advertising is the best in our times. I’ve heard the immense cultural possibilities of American mass media are used mainly for the purpose of selling more things than people really need.
Ms. Lora: The same story is in every country. And I haven’t said that mass media are bad. The advertising on TV is very expensive. But the mass media also raise the cultural level of the people and develop their artistic taste and professional skills. There are a lot of cultural and educational programms on TV, not only advertising...
  (Two men have stopped at the Lora’s poster and would like to speak to her).
Ms. Lora: Excuse me. I have to speak to clients. And you can walk along this exhibition and study other products here.



12. Ms. Betty decided to clear up some points in the area of publicity. She is asking Russian colleagues and her friend Lora:


1) How did the Russian advertising market look earlier?

2) What happened against the cash deficit?

3) What advertising is less expensive?

4) What will the strategy of advertising agencies’work depend on?

5) In the Russian market what are tobacco, perfume, and cosmetics promoted by?

6) What are home appliances and hardware/ software products promoted by?

7) In our days is the level of advertising expenditures in the centre and in the regions the golden mean or not?

8) What is the cheapest advert?

9) What is the role of TV in our life?

10) What are the terms of running the advertising campaign for football team, which Ms. Lora has promoted?

11) What are the advantages and disadvantages of TV advertising?



13. Retell the main idea of this dialogue.


14. After this exhibition Ms. Betty and Lora gave our Russian colleagues some interesting tasks. Here are some of them:

- Create and dramatize a commercial on TV:

a) of a new generation of computers; b) of a hotel of your country; c) of elite furniture; d) of a car; f) of a radio station.


15. Speak on the current economic events in Russia and abroad:

-Discuss the problem of advertising agencies in your country.

-Discuss the problem of trustworthiness of commercials on TV.


-Discuss what is new in advertising business from the point of view of an average consumer.


-Discuss the question of the effective schedule for commercials on TV.


16. You are a TV producer and you plan to invite a number of celebrities to make a commercial for soap. Choose a movie star and create a clip.


17. Role play: The Exhibition of Sport Goods in London.


Plot: The representatives of one advertising firm are taking part in the Sport Goods exhibition in London. They’ve invited their Russian partners. They are discussing the peculiar features of Russian advertising market’s development, the advantages and disadvantages of different kinds of advertising.


Roles: Marketing Director; Export-Import Manager; Director General; Sales Manager; Advertising Managers; guests.


Description of the situations:


1. Sales Manager of one advertising firm Ms. L. is telling the Russian colleagues about the football team, which she has to promote on this exhibition. The guests are interested in the past and future of this team, in the terms of running its advertising campaign.

2. British businessmen are interested in the development of Russian advertising market. They are having a talk with Marketing Director and Export- Import Director from the Russian firm.

3. Advertising Manager is having a talk with Director General of the Russian firm about the advantages and disadvantages of different kind of advert.


Organigram of the Role play:


Sales Manager Ms. L. Russian colleagues

British businessmen Marketing Director Mr. N.

Export-Import Director Mr. S.

Advertising Manager Ms.B Director General Mr. E.


18. Our Russian colleagues are at the firm where Ms. Lora and Ms. Betty work. It is an advertising agency. Ms. Lora and Ms. Betty would like to tell Russian businessmen about making the advertisement. It is the five-stage process. These stages are described here. Read and translate Ms. Lora's explanations.



- creative department – творческий отдел

- means of advertising – средства рекламы

- a placement of advertising- размещение рекламы

- a commercial department – коммерческий отдел

- to deal with commercial aspects – иметь дело с коммерческими аспектами

- to study the demand – изучать спрос

- to get a commission [k∂`mi∫n]– получать комиссионное вознаграждение

- to charge [t∫a:dg] the client the full amount of money – взять с клиента определенную сумму денег

- clearly stated source of investment – четко обозначенный источник финансирования

- the means of advertising distribution – средства распространения рекламы

- to set – 1) ставить , класть, помещать; расставлять, устанавливать; располагать, размещать; 2) задавать ( работу, задачу); 3) подавать (пример); 4) назначать, устанавливать, определять ( цену, время и т.д.)

- an objective [∂b’djektiv] - цель

- to persuade [p∂’sweid] – убеждать, увещевать

- a range [reind ] – диапазон, круг, охват, размах

- an assessment [∂’sesm∂nt] – оценка, мнение, суждение

- comparative [k∂m’pær∂tiv] – 1. сравнительный; 2. относительный

- to remind [rimaind] - напоминать

- to approve [∂’pru:v] – подтверждать, одобрять, утверждать, показывать; проявлять себя

- to adore [∂DO:] - обожать

- a competitor [k∂m’petit∂] - конкурент

- to presuppose [,pris∂’p∂uz] – 1) предполагать; 2) заключать в себе, включать в себя

- implementation [,ipliment’tei∫n] – выполнение, внедрение

- consequent [’konsikw∂nt] – 1) являющийся результатом ( чего-либо), (логически) последовательный; 2) результат, последствие

- a satisfaction [sætisfæk∫n] - удовлетворение

- to convey [k∂n’vei] – 1) перевозить, переправлять; 2) сообщать (известие); 3) выражать ( идею);

- exceptional [ik’sep∫n∂l] – исключительный, необычный, необыкновенный

- an impact – воздействие, влияние, последствие

- depends not on what has been said but the way it has been said – зависеть не от того, что сказано, а от того, как сказано

- stressing the contents, goals, integrity – обуславливая содержание, задачи, аргументацию

- to contain misleading or false information – содержать лживую информацию

- classified [`kla:sifaid]advert – классифицированные объявления

- a pulsing schedule – пульсирующий график

- efficiency [i`fi∫∂nsi]of advert – эффективность рекламы

- the major [‘meid ∂] types of advertisements – основные виды рекламы

- to offer an employment [im`ploiment]– предлагать работу

- keyed [ki:d] advert – кодовая реклама

- a resort [rizo:t] – 1) часто посещаемое место. Излюбленное место, курорт; 2) прибежище, утешение, надежда, спасительное средство; 3) обращение ( за помощью to~ к )

- to check [t∫ek]– 1) проверять, контролировать; 2) останавливать(ся), сдерживать, препятствовать; 3) раз. делать выговор, давать нагоняй ; 4) амер. отмечать галочкой



19. Read and translate the text with a help of dictionary:



Making advertisement is a five-stage process which includes such stages as:


I. setting the objectives [informing, persuading, reminding]

II. drawing up the budget

III. the appeal [forming of the idea, the choice of forms of appeal, implementation]

IV. the choice of information distribution means [the choice of the range, frequency, specific advertising means, the schedule]

V. the assessment of the results


(1) The Objectives should be clearly stated no matter whether it's informing, persuading or reminding.

Informing prevails on the stage of introducing a new product on the market. Persuading forms a special demand for a certain brand of products. Some persuading adverts tend to be comparative, i.e. they tend to show advantages of one brand to the other one of the same trade class. Comparative adverts are used to promote such categories of goods as deodorants, tooth paste, tires, and cars. Reminding is important to make the consumer remember the product but not to persuade or inform. It's a kind of advert that approves the right choice, e.g. happy buyers adoring their newly bought car.

(2)The Budget can be drawn up according to such principles as ‘on the level of competitors’, ‘out of certain objectives and goals’ etc..

(3)The Appealpresupposes the forming of the idea, choice of forms of appeal and implementation. Any advertiser should keep in mind the four AIDA points: = attention, interest, desire, action, - consequent stages of the consumer's response before buying.

Forming of the idea: the idea can be formed by way of combining types of satisfaction that a customer anticipates - rational, aesthetic, and social or a satisfaction of pride of ownership - with types of emotional experience. The choice of forms of appeal, the appeal is supposed to inform the receiver of something interesting and desirable. Also, it should convey an idea of the exceptional nature of the product compared to other brands of the same trade category. The appeal should be verisimilar and demonstrable. The implementation of the appeal is very important when advertising such similar goods as cigarettes, coffee and beer. The impact depends not on what has been said but the way it has been said. Usually the advertiser elaborates the text stressing the contents, goals, integrity and the right tone.

(4) The Choice of Information Distribution Means depends on settling the following questions: stating the range of frequency and the impact of the advert; choosing a specific advertising means and the right schedule. Most companies prefer a pulsing schedule.

(5)Assessment ofthe Results presupposes the evaluation of the communicative and commercial efficiency before, during and after the publicity campaign.


Yearly, American firms spend over 61 billion dollars in average for publicity campaigns, e.g. to promote the goods in 1995 the three leading American advertisers “Procter and Gamble” and “Philip Morris” and “General Motors” spent 2,7 - 2,4 - 1,9 billion dollars respectively. In 1995 same companies “Procter and Gamble”; “Philip Morris” were the leading advertisers on the Russian market after the leaders of 1994 the companies “MMM” and “Russkaya nedvizhimost”. The ASAs - Advertising Standards Authorities - monitor hundreds of advertisements weekly as these are the organizations to protect the public from advertisements that may contain misleading or false information.

There are two major types of advertisements:classified and commercial.Classified advertisements are short advertisements in a newspaper or magazine placed by people offering or asking for a product or service, or who are offering or looking for employment. Commercial advertisements are advertisements on television, radio or in a cinema.

Besides there arekeyed advertisements. Many advertisers resort to keyed adverts as they have a code printed on the reply coupon identifying the magazine or newspaper where it appeared. The advertiser can then check which magazines are the most useful source of advertising. The companies place keyed advertisements to help with market research.

20. Ms. Lora is interested how well her Russian colleagues understand her lecture:

1. What are the stages of making an advertisement?

2. What kinds of objectives can be set up on the first stage?

3. Why can persuading be an objective?

4. Why is reminding as important as an objective?

5. What are the principles of drawing up a budget?

6. What does the appeal presuppose?

7. What does the forming of the idea imply?

8. What does the choice of the forms of appeal imply?

9. What does the stage of the choice of information distribution involve?

10. How do you understand a pulsing schedule? Give an example of a pulsing schedule?

11. What is ASA?

12. What are two major types of advertisement?

13. Why do you think it’s useful to place keyed advertisements?



21. Give English equivalents to the following words and word-combinations. Make up your own sentences.

1.Творческий отдел.

2.Средства рекламы

3.Размещение рекламы

4.Коммерческий отдел

5.Иметь дело с коммерческими аспектами

6.Изучать спрос

7.Получать комиссионное вознаграждение

8.Взять с клиента определенную сумму денег

9.Четко обозначенный источник финансирования

10.Средства распространения рекламы

11.Кодовая реклама

12.Регистрационный купон

13.Зависеть не от того, что сказано, а от того, как сказано

14.Степень воздействия рекламы

15.Рекламодатель разрабатывает текст рекламы

16.Обуславливая содержание, задачи, аргументацию

17.Эффективность рекламы

18.Выбрать основные средства рекламы

19.Пульсирующий график

20.Основные виды рекламы

21.Классифицированные объявления

22.Предлагать работу

23.Содержать лживую информацию

22. Discuss the process of making advertisements. Give examples for every stage of the process.


Lesson 2.

Some hints for a successful presentation.


During their business trip Mr. Sverdlov and Mr. Evdokimov were offered to attend the advertising course. They have listened through the first lecture very carefully and got some hits for a successful presentation.


1. There may be some difficult words for Russian colleagues. The lecturer offers them to train the pronunciation at first:


- Presentation

- to overcome [,∂uv∂’kΛm]

- nervousness [’n∂:v∂snis]

- a brainstorm [’breinsto:m]

- relevant [’rel∂v∂nt]

- a research [ri’s∂:t∫]

- selective [s’∂lektiv]

- a thumb [QΛm]

- to draw [,dro:]

- a guideline [gaidlain]

- an overhead [,∂uv∂’hed]

- a rehearsal [ri’hз:sl]

- a rapport [ræ’po:t]

- essential [i’sen∫l]

- to maintain [mein’tein]

- to be aware [∂’wε∂]

- repetitive [ri’pet∂tiv]

- awkward [o:kw∂d]

- audible [’o:d∂bl]

- to absorb [∂b’so:b]

- disarming [dis’a:miŋ]

- hostile [’hostail]

- aiming [eimiŋ]

- entertain [,ent∂’tein]

- audience [’o:djens]

- exactly [ig’zæktli]

- expect [iks’pekt]

- terms [t∂:ms]

- content [k∂n’tent]

- approach [∂’prout∫]

- idea [ai’di∂]

- relevant [’reliv∂nt]

- appropriate [∂’pr∂υpri∂t]

- selective [si’lektiv]

- cram [kræm]

- varied [’vε∂rid]

- figures [’fig∂s]

- additional [∂’di∫∂nl]

- humour [’hju:m∂]

- organise [’o:g∂naiz]

- coherent [’k∂υ’hi∂r∂nt]

- structure [’strΛkt∫∂]

- logical [’lod ik∂l]

- introduction [,intr∂’dΛk∫n]

- conclusion [k∂n’klu: n]

- visual [’vizju∂l]

- charts [t∫a:ts]

- diagrams [’dai∂græms]

- graphs [’græfs]

- practice [’præktis]

- identify [ai’dentifai]

- pronounce [pr∂’nauns]

- confidently [’konfid∂ntli]

- memorize [’mem∂raiz]

- enthusiastic [in,Qju:zi’æstik]

- boredom [’bo:d∂m]

- delivering [di’liv∂riŋ]

- gestures [’d estst∫∂]

- irritate [’iriteit]

- intonation [,intou’nei∫n]

- transparencies [,trænspε∂r∂nsis]

- suggest [s∂’d est]

- further [’f∂:ð∂]

- simplicity [sim’plisiti]

- benefit [’benifit]

- clarity [’klæriti]

- verbs [v∂:bs]

- concepts [’konsepts]

- Jargon [’d a:g∂n]


2. Here are the meanings of English words, which the lecturer advised Mr. Sverdlov and Mr. Evdokimov to learn before the lecture:


- сonfident [‘konfid∂nt] – 1) уверенный в( успехе)

- 2) самоуверенный; самонадеянный

- to overcome – 1) побороть, победить, превозмочь, преодолеть; 2) истощить;

- nervousness – нервозность;

- a brainstorm – разг. 1) буйный припадок, душевное потрясение; 2) амер. внезапная идея, плодотворная мысль;

- relevant – уместный, относящийся к делу;

- appropriate – 1) подходящий, соответствующий; 2) свойственный, присущий (to );

- a research- 1) научное исследование, изучение, исследовательская работа; 2) тщательные поиски;

- selective – 1) отборный; 2) отбирающий, выбирающий; 3) избирательный;

- to cram – 1) переполнять; 2) впихивать, втискивать (into ) ; 3) вбивать в голову; втолковывать; натаскивать к экзамену; 4) пичкать, откармливать; 5) наедаться; 6) разг. играть;

- a thumb – 1) большой палец under smb’s~ всецело под влиянием кого-либо ( во власти кого-либо);

- to draw – ( drew, drown ) 1) тащить, волочить, тянуть; 2) натягивать, надевать; 3) вдыхать, втягивать; 4) привлекать внимание, вовлекать ( в разговор);

- coherent – 1) понятный, ясный, разборчивый; 2) последовательный, связный; 3) сцепленный;

- a guideline – руководство;

- an overhead – 1) верхний; 2) воздушный; 3) накладные расходы;

- a rehearsal – 1) повторение, перечисление ;2) репетиция; 3) пересказ;

- a rapport – 1) связь, взаимоотношения; 2) взаимопонимание, согласие;

- essential – 1) необходимый, весьма важный, ценный, неотъемлемый; 2) существенный;

- to maintain – 1) поддерживать, удерживать, сохранять, to~ one’s composure сохранять спокойствие; 2) содержать; 3) оказывать поддержку, защищать; 4)утверждать;

- to be aware – 1) знать, сознавать, отдавать себе полный отчет;

- repetitive – без конца повторяющийся, скучный;

- awkward – 1) неудобный, неловкий, затруднительный; 2) неуклюжий, неловкий; 3) разг. трудный (о человеке); 4) труднопреодолимый;

- audible – слышный, внятный, слышимый;

- to absorb – 1) всасывать, впитывать, поглощать; 2) поглощать (внимание), впитывать (знания);

- disarming – 1) разоружение; 2) обезвреживание, умиротворение;

- hostile – неприятельский, вражеский, враждебный;

- projection – [pr∂’d ek∫n]- 1)проектирование; 2)проекция; 3) выступ;

- to shout – [∫aut]- кричать

- expressiveness – [iks’presivnes]- выразительность

- a pitch – [pit∫]- зд. высота (звука, тона); 2) степень, сила;

- to force – [fo:s]- зд. заставлять, вынуждать

- linkers – [liŋk∂s]- ударение

- emphasizes – [’emf∂saiz]- 1)делать ударение; 2) подчеркивать, придавать особое значение;

- to exaggerate – [ig’zæd ∂reit]- преувеличивать

- persuasively – [p∂’sweisivli]- убедительно



Planning. Plan your presentation carefully. Thorough preparation will make you more confident and help you to overcome your nervousness.

Objectives. Think about what you want to achieve. Are you aiming to inform, persuade, train or entertain your audience?

Audience. Whom exactly will you be addressing? How many people will come? What do they need to know? What do they already know? What will they expect in terms of content and approach?

• Content.Brainstorm your ideas first. Then decide which are most relevant and appropriate to your audience and to your objectives and carry out any research that is necessary. Be selective! Don't try to cram too much into your presentation.

Approach. A good rule of thumb is to tell your audience what you're going to say, say it, then tell the audience what you've said. Try to develop your key points in an interesting and varied way, drawing on relevant examples, figures etc. for support as appropriate. You might also like to include one or two anecdotes for additional variety and humour.

• Organization. Think about how you will organize your content. Your presentation should have a clear, coherent structure and cover the points you wish to make in a logical order. Most presentations start with a brief introduction and end with a brief conclusion. Use the introduction to welcome your audience, introduce your topic/subject, outline the structure of your talk, and provide guidelines on questions. Use the conclusion to summarize the main points of your presentation, thank the audience for their attention, and invite questions.

• Visual aids. If you have a lot of complex information to explain, think about using some charts, diagrams, graphs etc., on an overhead projector or flipchart. Visual aids can make a presentation more interesting and easier to understand, but make sure they are appropriate and clear - don't try to put too much information on each one.


• Rehearsal. Allow time to practise your presentation - this will give you a chance to identify any weak points or gaps. You will also be able to check the timing, and make sure you can pronounce any figures and proper names correctly and confidently.




§ Nerves! You will probably be nervous at the beginning of your presentation. Don't worry -most people are nervous in this situation. Try not to speak too fast during the first couple of minutes this is the time you establish your rapport with the audience and first impressions are very important. You may find it helpful to memorize your introduction.

§ Audience rapport. Try to be enthusiastic -your interest in the subject matter will carry your audience along. Look around your audience as you speak - eye contact is essential for maintaining a good rapport. You will also be able to pick up signals of boredom or disinterest, in which case you can cut your presentation short.

§ Body language. Stand rather than sit when you are delivering your presentation and try to be aware of any repetitive hand gestures or awkward mannerisms that might irritate your audience.

§ Voice quality. You must be clearly audible at all times - don't let your voice drop at the end of sentences. If you vary your intonation, your voice will be more interesting to listen to and you will be able to make your points more effectively.

§ Visual aids.Use your visual aids confidently, making sure you allow your audience time to absorb information from flipcharts and transparencies.

§ Audience reaction. Be ready to deal with any hostile questions. Polite, diplomatic answers are a good disarming tactic, but if you should find yourself under fire, suggest that the audience keeps any further questions until the end of the presentation and continue with your next point.


§ Simplicity. Use short words and sentences that you are comfortable with. There is no benefit in using difficult language.

§ Clarity.Active verbs and concrete words are much clearer and easier to understand than passive verbs and abstract concepts. Avoid Jargon unless you are sure all your audience will understand it.

§ Signaling.Indicate when you've completed one point or section in your presentation and are moving on to the next. Give your audience clear signals as to the direction your presentation is taking.




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