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Decide what title is more suitable for the text. 1.Defining Cultural Identity and Social Structure



1.Defining Cultural Identity and Social Structure

2. Nutrition is a basic element of cul­tural identity

3.Food and Nutrition

4. Examination of ceramic artifacts

5. Ancient beverages.

 

3. Find in the text words having the similar meaning to:

1. Organic residues

2. Confirm

3. Condition

4. Understand

5. Be found

Answer the questions about the text.

1. Why were people always preoccupied with the quality of food consumed?

2. What is very intensely connected with nutritional matters?

3. What are the of the study of ceramic artifacts and the clay vessels used for the preparation and consumption of food in Athens and Greece?

4. What theory has been disproved?

5. How is the production of olive oil in Crete, the consumption of meat, leafy vegetables, fruit, olive oil, stew, lentils in various palatial set­tlements of Crete and of pork, cereals, pulses and honey at Mycenae­an Thebes, are revealed?

 

These are answers to the questions about the text. Write the questions.

1. Bio-historical investigation of human culture is very intensely connected to nutritional matters.

2. People were always preoccupied with the quality of food consumed.

3. Nutrition influences the way of living, social structure (large-scale agriculture engenders centralized urban societies as opposed to nomadic hunters), and health.

4. What analyses have been used to exam­ine the Minoans in Crete and the Mycenaean, who inhabited many regions in continental Greece.

5. with the examination of ceramic artifacts, the clay vessels used for the preparation and consumption of food.

Are the following sentences true or false? If they are false correct them.

1. Through mathematical and chemical analyses, the nutritional backgrounds of two major cultures which flourished in Greece during the second millennium B.C. were exam­ined.

2. The results of the analysis were predictable, proving that every single examined shard revealed some kind of information about the products it had once contained.

3. Thus, through chemical analysis, long speculated theo­ries about the nutritional habits of early societies would be checked and re-examined upon a purely scientific basis.

4. All Bronze Age results indicate that Minoans and Myceneans had diets rich in carbohydrates.

5. The production of olive oil in Crete, the consumption of meat, leafy vegetables, fruit, olive oil, stew, lentils in various palatial set­tlements of Crete and of pork, cereals, pulses and honey at Mycenae­an Thebes, aren’t revealed by the analysis of the shards.

Translate into Russian.

Text 5.

Read the text.

Industrialization and intense population growth have fundamen­tally altered the relationship between humans and their natural envi­ronment. Traditionally nature was seen as a hostile force. It could bring about floods, cold winters, or poor harvests, making life miser­able, causing much suffering and even leading to numerous deaths.

Today, it seems that the situation has changed completely. Na­ture and the environment seem to be at the mercy of our actions and their protection seems to be necessary for future generations.

For the greatest portion of human history, mankind relied on hunting, fishing and gathering of naturally grown fruits and vegeta­bles for its food supply. Only in the last 10,000 years has humanity begun to produce its own food through the planting of crops and the domestication of animals. These developments resulted in a more static population and the emergence of towns and cities. For defen­sive and later for commercial purposes, people chose to live in close proximity to one another. The emergence of agriculture also coin­cided with a period of widespread climatic and ecological change.

Scientists do not agree on whether the development of agriculture resulted from the growth in population and a declining resource base or from environmental causes. In any event, the development of agri­culture, along with the eventual development of a transportation infrastructure and distribution networks, set the stage for the growth and urbanization of the world's population, a condition resulting in numerous effects on culture and health.




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