3. Find in the text words having the similar meaning to:
2. To agitate
5. Destructive impact
Answer the questions about the text.
1. How have species been developing and creating their identities?
2. How could all of human development during the last few thousand years be interpreted?
3. Why has the conservation and protection of bios grown into one of the most acute needs at the dawn of the third millennium?
4. What is to be observed in every human society or culture, independently from its geographical location or chronological appearance?
5. What should be promoted worldwide?
These are answers to the questions about the text. Write the questions.
1. All of human development during the last few thousand years.
2. The consequences of this millennium-long development.
3. The human being has been observing, deifying, thinking, understanding, controlling and dominating the world into which he was born.
4. As a new promising research direction, of interest both to the scientific community and to the general public.
5. Protection of nature, the urge to dominate it and to have the choice of decision upon natural phenomena become of an important didactic interest in our times.
Are the following sentences true or false? If they are false correct them.
1. All species became conscious of their bio-environment and provoked alterations through interventions.
2. The consequences of this millennium-long development haven’t had such a great and sometimes devastating impact on the environment that the conservation and protection of bios hasn’t grown into one of the most acute needs at the dawn of the third millennium.
3. The understanding of changing environmental circumstances and of the fluidity of the concept of environmental protection doesn’t require the development of a critical appreciation of the numerous influences affecting the interactions between humanity and the environment.
4. All of human development during the last few thousand years could be interpreted as the result of the struggle for survival.
5. Protection of nature, the urge to dominate it and to have the choice of decision upon natural phenomena, is to be observed in every human society or culture, independently from its geographical location or chronological appearance.
Translate into Russian.
Read the text.
Water is one of the crucial components regulating human life and survival, Regions with either complete absence or threatening abundance of water have obliged men to adapt to this challenging environment and fight systematically and intelligently against aridity or flood. Regions with no rain are very hostile towards human installation. This absence of rainwater can be replaced by the use of irrigation from rivers.
Thus, it is no coincidence that exactly in the cradles of the big rivers, such as the Tigris and Euphrates, the Hindus, the Yellow River (Huang He), the Nile or the Niger, the Amazon and others, human beings proceeded first towards the systematic organization and technical controlling of natural forces. And the first large agricultural civilization have grown out of this challenging, difficult but still very rich environment. The combination of need and opportunity led to high technological and political achievements. People were dependent on the river waters to survive. So they invested huge amounts of human effort into the construction of canals, dams and dikes.
Failure to control natural forces led to immediate disasters or gradual degradation of the environment, including floods, changing river courses, meagre harvests and famine as a result of excess salt concentration in the soil.
The human need for water is universal, independent from the geographical region or the chronological period in cause. Myths concerned with this basic need are widespread in various cultures, testifying this major reality of human life.
Rivers are indispensable, life-ensuring natural elements. On riverbanks human settlements experienced the slow development from Paleolithic to Neolithic agrarian societies. The river provides food, essential quantities of water and the possibility to travel.
In the Balkan region, some of the oldest human settlements are systematically identified near rivers. The oldest Neolithic settlement ever excavated and the oldest conserved wooden boats are dated back to the 4th millennium B.C.
In Central Europe, the Danube has always been a cultural liaison between distant nations, and the wealth produced by the river is not negligible. Rivers have been deified, connected with myths, stories about mermaids or ghosts.
One of the most famous is the Homeric description of Odysseus' visit to the underworld, where he navigated the underworld Acheron River in Epirus. The ancient Greeks believed that the passage to the world of the dead leads through this river, controlled by the boat pilot.