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Decide what title is more suitable for the text. a. The greatest buildings in Egypt.

a. The greatest buildings in Egypt.

b. The ancient history.

c. Ancient wonders of the world.

d. Pyramids and temples in Greece.

e. Places visited by tourists.

3. Find in the text the words having the similar meaning to:

1.to control the affairs of a country 4.someone who creates sculptures
2.to surprise very much 5.belonging to the distant past
3.a large sculpture made of stone or metal 6.very well known


Answer the questions about the text.

1. Does anyone know why the Sphynx was build?

2. Who were the gardens built by?

3. Where was the greatest statue of Zeus?

4. Who destroyed the Temple of Artemis?

5. What was the Pharos built for?

5. These are answers to the questions about the text. Write the questions:

1. At the order of the Pharaoh Cheops.

2. The face is that of a man, the body is that of a lion.

3. By a hidden pool on the highest terrace, from which the water was drawn.

4. A massive tomb.

5. Colossus of Rhodes.

Are the following sentences true or false? If they are false correct them.

1. The Great Pyramid was being built for fifty years by 1000 slaves.

2. The Sphynx is a huge sculptured rock standing near the Great Pyramid.

3. The gardens were built by the King Nebuchodnozzor.

4. The Temple of Artemis is one of the most famous ancient temples which amazes tourists till nowadays.

5. Rhodes is an island near Egypt and is famous for its ancient theatre.

7. Translate into Russian the paragraph starting with the words: The greatest god of the ancient Greeks was Zeus They were dug up by modern scientists.

Task 3. Read the text “Building Materials” and do the following tasks:

Fill in the table using the information from the text.

The name of the building material Its composition Its peculiar features (color, strength, etc)

Find answers to the following questions.

a. Where is White Portland Cement used?

b. Why does High Alumina Cement require very wet curing conditions?

c. How is Tufa Cement formed?

d. What are the principal Sedimentary Rocks?

e. What does the durability of Sandstones depend on?

f. How are Sandstones classified?

3. Find in the text the words having the similar meaning to:

1. the amount or proportion of something that a substance contains 3. a process which causes solid particles to become separated from a liquid 5. to be greater or larger than something
2. to need 4. a substance that consists of other substances which have been stirred or mixed together 6. stratum

Building Materials

White Portland cement. The chemical composition and characteristics of white Portland cement are similar to those of ordinary Portland cement except that the latter is of grey colour. The colour of white cement is due to the raw materials used and special precautions taken in its production. The materials are pure limestone and china (white) clay, the iron oxide content being less than 1 per cent.

Portland Blast-Furnace Cement. This is a mixture of ordinary Portland cement and blast-furnace slag. The slag is mixed with ordi­nary cement clinker and passed to a ball mill for thorough incorpo­ration and fine grinding. The proportion of slag must not exceed 65 per cent, and that of Portland cement clinker riot less than 35 per cent.

High Alumina Cement. It is dark brown in colour. It contains about 40 per cent each of lime and alumina with about 15 per cent of iron oxides. This cement sets at about the same rate as Portland cement but gains strength very rapidly. Owing to the chemical activ­ity after hardening for the first 24 hrs, it requires very wet curing conditions. This cement is several times more costly than ordinary Portland Cement.

Tufa Cement. Tufa Cement is formed by grinding pulverized tufa with an approximately equal volume of Portland cement. Tufa is a rock of volcanic origin, consisting of 65 to 75 per cent silica and 10 to 15 per cent alumina, with some of the silica soluble.

Sedimentary Rock. This division comprises those stones which are chiefly employed for building purposes. Most of these rocks are formed of fragments of igneous rocks, which have been deposited by water in layers or strata. As successive layers were formed these sediments became hardened and consolidated by great pressure and were cemented together by sandy or clayey paste or by a chemical substance (such as carbonate of lime) conveyed by the percolating water. Other rocks of this division are formed from remains of ma­rine organism (shellfish, etc) and chemically by precipitation. The principal sedimentary rock are sandstones and limestones.

Sandstones. These consist of grains of quartz (sand or silica) held together by a cement or matrix. Sandstones are classified ac­cording to the nature of the binding material thus siliceous sand­stones, calcareous sandstones and argillaceous sandstones. Sand­stones form one of the most valuable materials. The durability of sandstones depends very largely upon the cementing material. Sili­ceous sandstones are therefore generally considered to be the most durable of the sedimentary rocks, as the binding material of silica is highly resistant to acid attack. The excellent state of preservation of many ancient buildings built of this stone is evidence of this. City buildings constructed of sandstone often assume a drab appearance owing to the dark colour.


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