3. Find in the text the words having the similar meaning to:
2. not protected against weather
5. to be affected or determined by something
3. the flat top part or the outside of something
6. to become stiff or firm
Answer the questions about the text.
1. What are failures in concrete work caused by?
2. Why is reinforced concrete more difficult to secure than mass concrete?
3. What factors are necessary for the durability of concrete?
4. What does the strength of plain concrete depend on?
5. What influences the compressive strength of plain concrete?
5. These are answers to the questions about the text. Write the questions:
1. Hard, strong, durable, dense, non-porous, fire resisting and economical.
2. When made of good materials, well mixed, and properly cured.
3. Rust spots on the surface.
4. Those which contain the maximum amount of coarse aggregate and still contain enough fine aggregate to produce a smooth surface.
5. By the addition of water to the cement.
Are the following sentences true or false? If they are false correct them.
1. The low quality of materials doesn’t influence the quality of concrete work.
2. Mass concrete is easier to secure than reinforced concrete.
3. The amount of cement doesn’t affect the strength of plain concrete.
4. Protected concrete hardens quicker than concrete exposed to the air.
5. The methods of mixing and other factors influence the compressive strength of plain concrete.
7. Translate into Russian the paragraph starting with the words:Concrete, to be durable, must be made of good materials …to produce a smooth surface.
Read the text.
The Great Pyramid is the only one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World that still stands. It was built at the order of the Pharaoh Cheops, who once ruled Egypt. More than 100,000 slaves laboured for twenty years to build it. They had no machines, not even carts - all the work was done by human strength alone. Yet each huge block was so well laid that the Pyramid has stood for 5,000 years.
Near the Great Pyramid in Egypt stands a huge sculptured rock called the Sphynx. The face is that of a man, perhaps the Pharaoh Khafre who had built it almost 5,000 years ago. But the body is that of a lion, and between its great stone paws is a small temple. Since no one knows exactly why the Sphynx was built, it remains a symbol of mystery - a riddle.
In Babylon, one of the great cities of the Ancient World, there was a famous garden which amazed visitors for hundreds of years. It was called the Hanging Gardens, because it was built along arches and towers and looked like a wall of flowers and green shubs. The garden was kept alive by a hidden pool on the highest terrace, from which the water was drawn to appear in a series of fountains. The gardens were built by King Nebuchodnozzor, who is mentioned in the Bible as the cruel conqueror of Jerusalem.
The greatest god of the ancient Greeks was Zeus, for whom the Roman name was called Jupiter. The greatest statue of Zeus was at Olympia, where the famous Olympic Games were held in its honour. The statue was 40 feet high - about seven times a man's height - and was made of marble, decorated with pure gold and ivory. After 1,000 years, an earthquake tumbled it down.
The temple of Artemis is one of the most famous temples of the ancient world. It stood for 600 years in Ephesus, a great city of Syria. The temple was sacred to Artemis, also called Diana, goddess of the moon. The finest sculptors and painters of Greece decorated this beautiful building, which was destroyed by the barbaric Goths. Only a few pieces of statues columns remained. They were dug up by modern scientists.
Few remember the tiny kingdom of Caria, which once flourished in what is now southwestern Turkey. But the name of its king, Mausolus, is known because of the word "mausoleum" - a massive tomb. The original Mausoleum, built in memory of this king by his widow, Queen Artemisia, was so magnificent that it was one of the Wonders of the Ancient World.
Rhodes, an island near Greece, was one of the richest and busiest towns of the ancient world. Standing across the entrance to its big harbour, was a huge statue of the sun god Helios, famous as the Colossus of Rhodes. Although ships sailed beneath these giant feet, the Colossus was not as large as the American Statue of Liberty.
The most famous lighthouse in ancient times was the Pharos of Alexandria built by Alexander the Great. It guarded the harbour of Alexandria, in Egypt, and light atop a high tower could be seen for sixty miles. To keep the beacon the powerful electric lamps behind glass lenses used in our lighthouses were not yet.