16. What is meant by the gaps in the aircraft traces in the video? What are the reasons?
VIDEO # 6
¸ Watch a video and guess what we are going to discuss now.
1. Give equivalents to the words and phrases given in the table.
NB! More then one equivalent can be given.
2. In case of any difficulties look through the text and find the equivalents to the words in exercise 1.
to hand off
to pull up
HOW IT ALL WORKS TOGETHER
Every minute hundreds of aircraft push back from their departure gates and begin flights that follow a common flight profile. The flight begins in a briefing office when weather information is obtained and a flight plan is filed. After the departure clearance is given by the tower, the aircraft pushes back from the gate, and receives instructions from the ground controller in the airport’s control tower on the appropriate taxiways to taxi towards the takeoff runway.
“Cleared for take off” is issued by the tower controller. Shortly after take off, the pilot is instructed to change radio frequency and contacts Radar or Approach control (it depends on the traffic situation).
The aircraft is now in the departure phase of flight. During this phase the aircraft is routed away from the airport via an assigned heading with a climb clearance to a new altitude.
After departure, the aircraft is handed off to an en-route controller. The aircraft is now moving into the en route phase of flight. The en-route controller monitors the flight and gives instructions to the pilot as the aircraft passes through the Center’s airspace from sector to sector. This phase can last from a few minutes up to many hours depending on the distance between the departure and the destination airports.
Once the aircraft is within approximately 150 miles of its destination airport, it begins its descent phase, when it moves from its cruising altitude to a lower altitude. Approximately 50 miles from the airport the aircraft is handed off to the Approach controller where the descent continues during the approach phase of flight. The Approach controller is collecting several streams of descending aircraft into one smooth flowing stream of aircraft to line up for a particular runway. The flight is then handed off from the Approach controller to the Radar controller and later to the Tower controller who is stationed at the destination airport’s control tower. The Tower controller issues “Cleared to land”. The Ground Controller instructs the aircraft which taxiways to use. From the time the aircraft lands on the runway until it pulls up to the gate, the airport’s control tower is in control of the aircraft. It is this entire network of controllers and facilities that monitor and control the traffic in the airspace.
3. Complete the headings of the table on page 28 with ATC units which are responsible for all flight phases from departure to landing at destination airport. Start with “Briefing Officer”.
4. Read the text carefully and complete the table on page 28 with the appropriate responsibilities of all ATC units given in the text.
5. Read the following controller’s responsibilities. Put them into appropriate columns of the table on page 28.
NB! Some statements can go to different columns.
…gives instructions to avoid weather
…controls passing mandatory points
…gives climb and descent clearances
…gives initial instructions for vacating the runway
…monitors all ground movement around the airport
…gives a pilot landing instructions
…provides air safety in upper airspace
…informs a pilot on bans and restrictions on route
…gives taxi instructions to get the aircraft to the holding point
…recommends an alternate if necessary
… always informs a pilot on QFE and QNH only on a pilot’s request
…provides necessary separation for departing and arriving aircraft
…gives instructions to increase or reduce speed
…gives a pilot instructions to join a traffic circuit
…coordinates work with the adjacent areas
…approves a type of approach
…informs a pilot on weather at the destination and alternate airports
6. Do you know any other responsibilities? Add your own ideas.
7. Study the table carefully and be ready to speak on ATC responsibilities using the following phrases:
… deal with … traffic
… coordinate work with …
… be responsible for (smth/doing smth)
… provide pilot with … information
… inform pilot about/of.…
… give pilot … clearance /instructions
… issue clearance for …
… have to …