5. Read the text and answer the following questions. You can use your own experience.
1. What weather phenomena can influence RW condition?
2. What is bad RW condition?
3. Why is black ice dangerous for an aircraft?
4. Can you describe perfect RW condition?
5. Can you describe any real situation when bad RW condition resulted in a serious accident?
There are some hazardous weather phenomena which can seriously affect RW condition. They are heavy precipitation, such as snow, rain and freezing rain and sleet, changeable temperature, ice, etc. Ice and snow can make braking and taxing difficult or impossible if severe enough. Freezing rain might cause icing of an aircraft and RW surface. It reduces braking action and might be the reason for sliding off the RW or undercarriage problem which can lead to a serious incident or accident.
6. Look through the 3 characteristics of a RW and cross the odd out.
Characteristics of a RW:
The RW is
covered with ...
vehicle broken down
a flock of birds
a disabled aircraft
on the RW
NB! Black ice – is very dangerous because it’s invisible but RW is slippery.
icy patches/patches of ice
ruts and ridges
on the RW
NB! Some specific information:
*But foreign pilots can also require braking coefficient in case of cross wind and poor braking action.
NB! Other characteristics of a RW:
Rough / broken surface at the beginning of the RW.
Snow banks / drifts on the RW edges.
Snow removal / clearance at the stop-end of the RW.
Snow removal / maintenance work / construction work in progress.
7. Can the runway covered with ice be perfect for landing?
8. Watch a short video. Have you changed your opinion?
VIDEO # 24
9. Answer the following questions using your own experience:
1. Does temperature influence flying?
2. How does low temperature affect flights?
3. How does high temperature affect flights?
4. What are the controller’s actions, if a pilot reports low fuel temperature?