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Match pairs of words having similar meanings.



brings together to apply for
constant to require
to turn to to further through
flux permanent
to emerge to resume
to promote conservation
to call for to continue
To revive to arise
to contribute to encourage
to last flow
toxic poisonous
preservation to chuck together

 

13. Find English equivalents to the following words and phrases in the text:

Долгосрочное градостроительное проектирование, сочетаемое с основными принципами защиты окружающей среды: чтобы совместить непрерывное развитие с возможностями окружающей среды; могут стать альтернативой; так как строительство с применением природных материалов и дизайн все еще в зачаточном состоянии; строение, сплетенное из прутьев, камыша или соломы и обмазанное глинной; замкнутый цикл использования природных ресурсов; штукатурка; полироль; утрамбованный, набивной грунт; строительство из соломенных кип; осведомленность общественности вопросами окружающей среды; новые возможности; учитывать особенности культуры; учитывать ресурсы и умения характерные для данного региона; гармоничное сосуществование; градостроительство; справедливость; связь, сплоченность; содействовать, способствовать; примирять, улаживать; появляться; настойчивые попытки; постоянное движение; возобновляться; связывать; сохранение природы.

 

 

14.Replace the words in brackets with the corresponding English words and phrases.

1. The environmental protection (сводит вместе) social, economic, moral and political (взгляды).

2. (Градостроительное проектирование) must take these considerations into account and (объединять) such prin­ciples as: (возможности окружающей среды, эффективность окружающей среды, эффективность социального обеспечения и справедливость, использование природных строительных материалов).

3. (Чтобы совместить непрерывное развитие с возможностями окружающей среды) mankind must choose certain types of development rather than others.

4. Quantity of goods (должно быть заменено) quality of life.

5. (Строительство из природных материалов появилось в ответ на) an increasing concern for our built environment.

6. While interest (возник) in the industrialized West, the ancient roots of natural building (утрачиваются) in many traditional areas.

7. Increased interest and (изучение местных строительных систем) will increase (почтительное отношение) for these (всегда актуальным) ideas.

8. Many of these techniques (возрождаются), studied and (осуществляются) throughout the world.

9. (Так как строительство с применением природных материалов и дизайн все еще в зачаточном состоянии), the state of the art is in constant flux as (исполнители) and techniques, (до сих пор обособленные), are identified and brought into partnership with others.

10.Architecture and (градостроительство основанное на сохранение окружающей среды) are (единственная альтернатива) for maintaining quality of life and (предотвращения продолжающегося вреда окружающей среде).

11. Awareness of these issues and in­formation on possible opportunities existing worldwide are vital (для развития новых возможностей перестройки структуры городов и сельских местностей) as well as human settlements in general.

12.Bio-architecture links (понимание) of the environment and (биологическая вариативность) with urban design and planning.

13.Bio-architecture also (способствует) the use of materials and techniques, (которые экологически приемлемы, учитывают особенности культуры, ресурсы и умения, характерные для данного региона).

14.A "Biopolis" is based on (использование чистых источников энергии), cleaner production and environmentally friendly materials.

 

15. Choose a phrase from the list below that has the same meaning as the italicized phrase:

toxic substances considerations Efficiency the economic output of each human being Natural materials
vernacular building systems precautionary principle concern for our built environment quantity of goods toxic substances
timeless ideas environmental preservation flux environmental illness is still in its infancy
environmentally friendly urban design and construction        

1. The environmental protection brings together social, economic, moral and political issues and attention, especially before making an official or important decision.

2. Uncertainty about the environmental threshold of the earth's carrying capacity requires the adoption of the principle that is done in order to prevent something dangerous or unpleasant from happening and calls for demanding management.

3. The quality of doing something well and effectively, without wasting time, money, or energy has meanings beyond maximizing the amount of goods or work produced by a person, machine, and factory.

4. An amount of things produced by people that can be counted or measured should be replaced with quality of life.

5. Natural building has emerged as a response to an increasing feeling of worry about our built environment.

6. Materials that grow up naturally can provide an alternative to substances containing poison which have led to widespread environmental contamination.

7. It is to be hoped that increased interest and research into a style of building that is suitable for ordinary people will increase respect for these ideas remaining attractive and not becoming old-fashioned in their native lands, and through diligent efforts by a number of people, many of these techniques are indeed being revived, studied and implemented throughout the world.

8. As natural building and design is just starting to be developed, the state of the art is in constant movement.

9.Architecture and urban planning based on the principles when environment is kept in its original state or in good condition are the only option for maintaining quality of life and preventing lasting environmen­tal damage.

10.Pollution reduction, waste minimization and energy conservation can be furthered through urban design and construction that doesn’t produce a negative impact on the environment.

16. Fill in the blanks with the following prepositions or adverbs where necessary:

about throughout beyond into through
to in with Ironically into
  of for on by

 

1. Urban management must take these considerations … account and incorporate the following prin­ciples: environmental limits, environmental efficiency, welfare efficiency and equity, natural building materials.

2. Uncertainty … the environmental threshold …the earth's carrying capacity requires the adoption … the precautionary principle and calls … demanding management.

3. Reducing the use … natural resources, increasing durability and closing resource loops will contribute … long-range environmentally compatible urban management.

4. Efficiency has meanings … maximizing the economic output … each human being.

5. Quantity of goods should be replaced … quality of life.

6. Natural materials can provide an alternative … toxic substances which have led … widespread environmental illness.

7. While interest has surged …the industrialized West, the ancient roots … natural building are being lost … many traditional areas.

8. …. , builders … the industrialized countries are now turning … these very cultures … solutions … their building problems.

9. It is to be hoped that increased interest and research … vernacular building systems will increase respect … these timeless ideas … their native lands, and …. diligent efforts … a number … people, many … these techniques are indeed being revived, studied and implemented ….the world.

10. Many … the European city problems could be resolved … pay­ing greater attention … the environment.

11. Architecture and urban planning based … environmental preservation are the only option … maintaining quality … life and preventing lasting environmen­tal damage.

12.Awareness of these issues and in­formation … possible opportunities existing worldwide are vital … the development … new possibilities and new scopes …. restructur­ing urban and agricultural areas, as well as human settlements … general.

 

 

17. Find in the text answers to the following questions. Work in pairs. Use such expressions as:

I think/suppose/ consider/believe; to my mind/ in my opinion; as far as I remember/ know/ understand; Let me see…; How shall I put it?; Well, let me think..; Let’s put it this way…; I’ll have to think about that; The best way I can answer that is…; That’s a good question.; That’s a difficult question. Let me see….

1. What principles must urban management incorporate?

2. How can you explain the notion “vernacular architecture”?

3. What should replace quality of goods?

4. What can natural materials provide?

5. Give your understanding of the word “Biopolis”?

6. Do you know the geographical regions where natural building materials are widely used?

7. What environmentally friendly building materials do you know? How are they used or can be used by mankind?

8. What clean energy sources do you know? How are they used or can be used?

 

18. Give the definitions to the following terms:

Environmental limits Natural building materials Environmental efficiency
equity Vernacular building systems Continuing development
Lasting environmental damage worldwide Bio-architecture

19. Match the following definitions with their terms:

 

1.Natural building materials a.materials that grow up naturally and are used for building purposes.
2.Multiple use b.use involving many things, people, events etc
3.Mankind c.all humans considered as a group
4.Social equity d. a situation in which all people are treated equally and no one has an unfair advantage
5.Industrialized countries e. countries or places that have a lot of factories, mines etc
6.energy conservation f. when you prevent energy from being lost or wasted

 

20. What do you think of the following? Discuss this statement with your partner.

· Quantity of goods should be replaced with quality of life.

21. Speak on the following topic:

· New trends in urban management.

· Natural building materials.

· Preservation of the environment.

· Biopolis.




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