Translate the following words and phrases into Russian.
on the other hand
on vast scale
relatively cheap filler
to assist in
to result from
Make up your own sentences using the words and phrases from tasks 2, 3 and 4.
Skim the text and say what the general idea of the text is.
When skimming divide the text into parts.
Concrete is perhaps the most widely spread building material used nowadays. Concrete is an artificial stone, made by thorough mixing such natural ingredients or aggregates as cement, sand and gravel or broken stone together with sufficient water to produce a mixture of the proper consistency. It has many valuable properties. It sets under water, can be poured into moulds so as to get almost any desirable form, and together with steel in reinforced concrete it has very high strength, and also resists fire. Prestressed concrete is most widely used at present while prefabricated blocks are employed on vast scale for skeleton structures.
AGGREGATES FOR CONCRETE
By the simple definition from the dictionary "aggregates are the materials, such as sand and small stones, that are mixed with cement to form concrete". In other words aggregates can be defined as a mass of practically inert mineral materials, which, when surrounded and bonded together by an active binder, form the rock. This rock is denoted by the general term concrete.
Aggregates have three principal functions in the concrete: they provide a relatively cheap filler for the concreting material, or binder; they provide a mass of particles which are suitable for resisting the action of applied loads, of abrasion, of percolation of moisture through the mass, and of climate factors; they reduce volume changes resulting from the action of the setting and hardening of the concrete mass.
All aggregates, both natural and artificial, which have sufficient strength and resistance to weathering, and which do not contain harmful impurities may be used for making concrete.
As aggregates such natural materials as sand, pebbles, broken stone, broken brick, gravel, slag, cinder, pumice and others can be used.
Prestressed concrete is not a new material. Its successful use has been developed rapidly during the last two decades, chiefly because steel of a more suitable character has been produced. Concrete is strong in compression but weak when used for tensile stresses.
If, therefore, we consider a beam made of plain concrete, and spanning a certain distance, it will at once be realized that the beam's own weight will cause the beam to "sag" or bend. This sagging at once puts the lower edge of the beam in tension, and if the cross sectional area is small, causes it to break; especially if the span is relatively large.
If, on the other hand1, we use a beam of similar cross-section, but incorporate steel bars in the lower portion, the steel will resist the tensile stress derived from the sag of the beam, and thus assist in preventing it from breaking.
In prestressed concrete steel is not used as reinforcement, but as a means of producing a suitable compressive stress in the concrete. Therefore any beam (or member) made of prestressed concrete is permanently under compression, and is consequently devoid of crack under normal loading, or so long as the "elastic limit" is not exceeded.
Prestressed concrete is not only used for beams but is now employed extensively for columns, pipes, and cylindrical water towers, storage tanks, etc.