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Translate the following sentences. Write an abstract of the chapter, i.e


Write an abstract of the chapter, i.e. express the idea of the chapter in some sentences.

Render the text in English.

Chapter 10


1. Look and read:

Other types of structural systems include:

Space structures

Stressed skin structures- structures clad with thin elements designed to contribute to the strength of the whole.

Shell structures- thin but extensive curved structural members capable of supporting themselves.

Air supported structures- structures formed by thin flexible membranes which are supported by air pressure.

e.g. The post-and-lintel structure consists of three upright posts and two horizontal lintels.


The posts support the lintels which carry The roof
carry support


The lintels span a distance of 1 meter.

Materials used for post-and-lintel structures include stone and timber.


Now make similar statements about the

· Loadbearing wall

· Joist structure.


2. Read this:

The post-and-lintel structure, in the diagram above, is composed of straight members. The vertical and horizontal members which are used to make the structure are called posts and lintels respectively. The posts are spaced at 1 metre centres. They are made up of blocks. Both the posts and the lintels are made of stone.


Now write a similar description of the loadbearing wall and joist.


3. Look at the diagrams in exercise 1 and answer these questions:

1. What do the stanchions carry?

2. What do the floor beams support?

3. What does the steel frame consist of?

4. What is the arch made up of?

5. At what centers are the steel frames spaced?

6. What are the horizontal members which connect steel frames together called?

7. What distance does the vault span?

8. What is the span of the arch?

9. What is the stone in the centre of the arch called?

10. Give some examples of materials used for arcuated and framed structures.

4. Look at this table:

The components of a factory


Elements Compound units Units Materials
Roof roof structure waterproof covering joists and slabs timber wood-wool asphalt
Walls cladding wall structure corrugated sheets beams and stanchions steel steel
Floors wearing surface floor structure tiles panels vinyl precast concrete
Foundations   column bases concrete


Now make questions and answers using this table and the table above.

a) What do the roof consist of?
does walls
b) How many elements is the factory constructed from?
compound units roof
c) What is the roof structure made up of?
wall structure
floor structure
d) What are the joists made of?
corrugated sheets
precast panels

5. Look at this section through a factory and label the components using first table in exercise 4:

Example:timber joints

6. Now complete this passage:


The factory … from four elements: the … , the … , the… , and the ... . The roof … a waterproof cover­ing, which is made of …, and a …, which is made of tim­ber joists and … slabs. The walls are constructed from two ... , the wall structure, which consists of … , and the … , which is made of … sheets. The … consists of a wearing surface, which is made of … and a floor structure, which is made of …. The foundations consist of ….


7. Answer these questions by giving properties of materials:

1. Why is steel used for the frame structure of the factory?

2. Why is asphalt used for the waterproof covering?

3. Why are corrugated steel sheets used for the cladding?

4. Why are vinyl tiles used for the wearing surface?

5. Why is concrete used for the column bases?


8. Now make tables like this analyzing the structures of several different buildings found in your country.Use the following headings:


Structural system Elements Compound units Units Materials

Compare the structures of the buildings and the properties of the materials used to make them.


Look and read

In the following diagram showing the layout if frames the span of beams is 9 meters.

The frames are spaced at 3 meters center.




The single-storey structure consists of three frames. These frames are made up of steel stanchions and beams. The frames are placed between end walls and spaced at 3 metre centres. The stanchions carry the beams. These beams support the roof. The roof beams cantilever a short distance beyond the stanchions. This means that they extend over the profiled sheet steel cladding. The cladding can then be placed outside the line of the stanchions.

The beams are bolted to steel stanchion caps. The stanchion caps are welded to the top of each stanchion. The load on each beam is transmitted through these plates to the stanchions.

The upper face of the steel base plates and the ends of the stanchions are machined flat. The bottom of each stanchion is welded to a base plate. Each base plate is fixed to a concrete column base by two holding-down bolts.

Steel angles are fixed across the ends of the beams and built into the brick walls. These angles tie the frames together and also provide a place to fix the top of the cladding.


Now answer these questions:

1. How are the angles fixed to the roof beams?

2. How are the loads on a roof beam transmitted to the column bases?

3. What is the joint between a base plate and a column base filled with?

4. Why do the roof beams cantilever a short distance?


10. Copy and complete this table:

The elements of the single-storey steel structure


Elements Compound units Units Materials
Space dividers      


11. Look at this diagram and read the passage:

Let's look closely at this drawing of a structure. It's an example of an arcuated struc­ture and it's called a segmental arch. It's given that name because it's shaped like the segment of a circle. Now arcuated structures have one big advantage: they can be used to span openings with components smaller in size than the width of the open­ing. As you can see, bricks are used as the components for this arch and each one is a lot smaller than the width of the opening. The bricks have been formed into a wedge shape. This is done so that their weight is distributed downwards along the curve of the arch. In this way, the bricks support each other over the opening. When the arch is constructed, the last bricks placed in position are the keybricks. They're located at the top or crown of the arch and they lock the other bricks in position. The joints, here, here, and so on, are between the bricks at right angles to the curve of the arch. They are filled with mortar made of cement and sand. Now mortar is strong in compression but weak in tension. However, all the forces in an arch must be compressive, so that the mortar does not take any tensile forces. An earthquake may move the arch and cause tensile forces in it. If this happened then the arch would fall down. Because of this, I suggest you don't walk under an arch during an earthquake.


Now copy and complete these notes:


Name of structure …. arch
Reason for name shaped like … of …
Advantage of structure can use components … than … of opening
Shape of components
Reason for shape bricks .. each other
Name of last brick …..
Position of joints between … at … to curve
Material of mortar …. and …
Type of forces in arch ….
If tensile forces arch will … ….


Chapter 11


Look and read.

All buildings enclose space. Buildings always enclose space. invariably Nearly all people live in houses. People nearly always live in houses. Most buildings have windows. Buildings usually have windows. generally Many architects work in a design team. Architects often work in a design team. Frequently Some buildings have air conditioning. Buildings sometimes have air conditioning. Few people build their own houses. People occasionally build their own houses.   Few people live in very cold climates. People rarely live in very cold climates. seldom Very few buildings are portable. Buildings are very rarely portable. seldom No building last forever. Buildings never last forever.

Now complete these statements by starting with one of the following:

All, nearly all, most many, some, a few, few, very few, no

1. Architects have studied architecture at university.

2. Buildings have entrances on the ground floor.

3. Bridges are built of concrete.

4. Buildings have doors.

5. People live in cities.

6. Blocks of flats are over 50 meters high.

7. Architects are self-employed.

8. Houses are prefabricated.

9. Shops are accessible by car.

10. Buildings are built on rock foundations.

11. People are taller than 1-8 meters.

12. Factories have solid walls.

13. Buildings are designed to keep out the weather.

14. Hotels are completely fireproof.

15. Buildings are two dimensional.


2. Now rewrite the above statements using the adverbs of frequency introduced in exercise 1:

Examples: Buildings usually have doors.

Buildings are sometimes built on rock foundations. (Note the position of the adverb.)


3. Look at these statements:


People tend to need heating when the weather is cold. People tend not to need heating when the weather is warm.

i.e. This is usually true, but there are some exceptions.


Now say whether these statements are true or false. Correct the false statements.

1. People tend to walk in straight lines.

2. People tend to come together in groups.

3. Climate tends not to affect the design of buildings.

4. People tend to sit in the sun when it is very hot.

5. People open the windows in their houses when it is cold.

6. People tend to live near their place of work.

7. A tall building tends to be relatively less expensive than a low building.

8. In a house, the kitchen tends to be situated near the bedrooms.

9. A building with a simple plan tends to be more expensive to build than a building with a complex plan.


Look and read


seismic areas

cyclone areas


Note:Hurricanes often tend to cause serious flooding.


Read these statements about the possibility of a catastrophe occurring during the next year:

It is almost impossible that an earthquake will cause serious damage in Great Britain.

It is highly unlikely that an earthquake will cause serious damage in Australia.


It is possible that an earthquake will cause serious damage in Italy.

It is I probable that an earthquake will cause serious damage in Japan.


Now choose the correct words in these sentences:


1. During the next year it is possible/improbable/probable that floods will destroy several houses in Great Britain.

2. During the next year it is likely/unlikely/impossible that a hurri­cane will destroy a city in Peru.

3. During the next ten years it is highly improbable/likely/unlikely that an earthquake will kill several people in California.


Here are some more expressions used to talk about the possibility of an event occurring:


A major earthquake might occur in Australia during the next year, but it is unlikely.

A major earthquake may occur in Italy soon.

Amajor earthquake will probably occur in Japan during the next six months.

There is a very slight possibility that a major earthquake will occur in Australia during the next twelve months.

The likelihood that a major earthquake will occur in Great Britain in the near future is low.

The chances that a major earthquake will occur in Peru in the next five years are high.


Choose the correct words in these sentences:

1. A flood may/might/will probably cover large areas of ground in Australia sometime during the next ten years.

2. A hurricane might/may/will not kill several people in Japan before the end of the year.

3. The possibility that a flood will damage crops in India sometime during the next year is high/low/non-existent.

4. There is no/a slight/a strong possibility that a hurricane will destroy several buildings in Peru sometime during the next ten years.

5. The likelihood of an earthquake causing a breakdown in power supplies in Florida is low/non-existent/high.



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