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Describe a picture and give as many ideas as possible about the event. Justify your opinion. You have 30 seconds to think


VIDEO # 38 Warm up. ¸ Watch a video and guess what we are going to discuss now.  
1. Match the words in column A to the words with the similar meaning in B.
1. error a) nowadays
2. terrain b) purposely
3. fatalities c) result
4. crash d) to pay attention to
5. to monitor e) main
6. to occur f) offender
7. malfunction g) avoiding
8. partially h) seldom
9. to cover i) mistake
10. currently j) equipment
11. consequence k) death
12. rarely l) to deal with
13. deliberately m) ground
14. major n) to control
15. aid o) to take place
16. intruder p) failure
17. evasive q) partly
18. to take into account r) collision

Match the words in A to their definitions in B.


1. layout a) knowledge or understanding of a particular subject or a situation
2. to be subject to b) an official document which permits to do, own, or use smth.
3. to fire c) not suitable
4. license d) a type of lock for a door
5. to revoke e) to be likely to have, suffer or be affected by smth.
6. to screen f) when someone or something is very much dependant on someone or something else
7. fitness g) to become better
8. to dive h) to take medical test to see if someone has an illness
9. latch i) to force someone to leave their job, to dismiss someone from one’s job
10 over-relianced j) being very tired
11 awareness k) conditions, when you are healthy and strong enough to do hard work or sports
12 to improve l) to cancel a law, license
13. fatigue m) to make less forceful
14. improper n) the way in which the parts of something are arranged according to a plan
15. to blunt o) to go lower quickly
16. manpower p) the number of people working or available for work
3. Fill in the gaps with appropriate words given in the box below. Make all necessary changes.
awareness / terrain / to dive / fitness / to improve / to revoke / to be subject / major / screen / to fire /

4. Look through the text below and find the answer to the following question:

“Whose mistakes might lead to aviation events?”

1. Special attention should be paid to wind flow when flights are made over hills or mountainous _______________. 2. The trainee’s flying skills ____________ ______________a lot for recent time. 3. There are two ________________cloud groups, stratus and cumulus. 4. Flights _____________________ to delays after the heavy snowfall. 5. The airline _______________him for being drunk before the scheduled flight. 6. His license _________________recently ______________. 7. The company is offering a free health _________________to all air traffic controllers. 8. Being a pilot requires a high level of physical and psychological _________________. 9. The aircraft appeared to ________________ vertically towards the crowd. 10. Situational __________________ (having a picture) is central to the job of air traffic controller.


Though the statistics approves that aviation is the safest mode of transport, a lot of people nowadays are afraid of flying. According to all available information, the reason for the majority of incidents and accidents is the human error.

Indeed human factor is currently the most common factor of aviation crashes. It deals with all the human elements of people in man-machine systems. It covers not only the traditional design and layout of equipment and workplaces, but also all aspects of manpower, organization, management, distribution of responsibility, automation, communication, skills, training, health, safety, and the prevention of errors and accidents.

Pilots’ and controllers’ errors and improper communication are often reason for the collision of aircraft. Using inadequate phraseology can cause misunderstanding and result in a disaster, so the language aspect is also important. If pilots fail to monitor the flight instruments properly and if air traffic controllers fail to monitor aircraft tracks on radar screens and provide necessary separation between aircraft properly can have catastrophic consequences.

Rarely, flight crew members are arrested or subject to disciplinary action for being intoxicated on the job. In 2002 two America West pilots were arrested just before they were scheduled to fly from Miami, Florida, to Arizona, because they had been drinking alcohol. The pilots have been fired from America West and the FAA revoked their pilot’s licenses.

Although most air crews are screened for psychological fitness, some may take suicidal actions. In the case of Egypt Air Flight 990 in 1999, it appears that the first officer (co-pilot) deliberately dove his aircraft into the Atlantic Ocean.

But human factors are not limited to errors made by the pilots and the air traffic controllers. The people concerned are those associated with the total system: designers, equipment suppliers, maintainers, support personnel, instructors and so on.

The failure to close a cargo door properly on Turkish Airlines Flight 981 in 1974 resulted in the loss of the aircraft – however, the design of the cargo door latch was also a major factor in the incident. In case of Japan Airlines Flight 123, improper maintenance resulted in the loss of the vertical stabilizer.

Controlled flight into terrain (CFIT) is a class of accident in which an undamaged aircraft is flown, under control, into terrain. These accidents typically are a result of pilot error or navigational system error. Some pilots, over-relianced on advanced electronic navigational systems such as GPS, INS, Flight Management System computers, are partially responsible for these accidents. Crew awareness and careful monitoring of navigational systems can prevent CFIT accidents.

Other technical aids can be used to help pilots maintain situational awareness. A ground-collision warning system is an on-board system that will alert a pilot if the aircraft is about to fly into the ground. Another on-board system, the TCAS computer, scans the airspace around the aircraft and in case an intruder aircraft is detected, it determines if evasive action is necessary, and if so what kind of evasive actions has to be taken.

Flight incidents seldom happen because of deliberate non-observance of the established rules. Usually aviation events occur in circumstances which appear to be above opportunities of the person. Thus, while analyzing actions of the person during aviation incident or accident, his decision and acts it is necessary to take into account the level of working capacity of the person which depends on a limit of his physical and psychological opportunities, knowledge, qualification, skills, experience. The person is subject to such a big number of variable factors, various situations and circumstances that to predict all of them is very difficult. Therefore much attention should be given to all factors which can influence the particular person. In other words, it is necessary to analyze not only mistakes of a person, but also the reason for which they have occurred.



5. Read the text again. Find the information which could help prove the following statement:

Q “Self-calmness, self-assurance, absence of self-discipline can blunt feeling of danger and can lead to a bad end”

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