Exercise 2. Read and translate into your native language.
Waste products, to transmit via the ureters, propel urine towards the urinary bladder, forcing urine downward, sweat and breathing, excess of water, walls relax and expand, alert about the time to urinate, bacteria, viruses and fungi, continually tighten and relax, breakdown of active tissues, accumulate in the blood, to consume food, subsequently expell from the body.
Exercise 3. Form words with negative meaning with the help of prefixes un-, in-, im-, dis-. Translate new words.
Exercise 4. Rewrite the sentences giving the words in brackets with negative meaning.
1. I am sorry, I (to understand) her message completely.
2. Ukraine got the status of (dependence) 1996.
3. The pain (to appear) 15 minutes after I took these pills.
4. We normally have similar opinions but I (to agree) with him totally now.
5. This drug has several (favourable) effects such as nausea and drowsiness.
6. The formation of kidney stones can cause (function) of kidneys.
7. The (adequate) oral hygiene can cause caries formation.
8. You should (to continue) the treatment if you don’t notice any improvement in patient’s condition.
Exercise 5. Read and translate the text.
PHYSIOLOGY OF THE URINARY SYSTEM
The urinary system is the major system involved in the excretion of metabolic waste products and excess of water from the body, regulates blood volume and pressure, and regulates blood pH. A type of waste called urea is removed from the blood by the urinary system. Urea is produced when foods containing protein, such as meat, are broken down in the body. Urea is carried in the bloodstream to the kidneys.
The kidneys remove urea from the blood through nephrons. And then urea, together with water and other waste substances, forms the urine and passes through the nephrons and then it is excreted from the kidney via the ureters.
Wastes in the blood come from the normal breakdown of active tissues and from food. The body uses food for energy and self-repairs. After the body has taken what it needs from food, wastes are sent to the blood.
Ureters are two narrow tubes that propel urine towards the urinary bladder, where it is stored and subsequently expelled by urination. Muscles in the ureter walls continually tighten and relax forcing urine away from the kidneys. If urine backs up or stands still, a kidney infection can develop.
The urinary bladder acts as a reservoir for the urine. The bladder's walls relax and expand to store urine, and contract to empty it. Nerves in the bladder alert a person when it is time to urinate.
The urethra passes the urine outside of the body. The brain signals the bladder muscles to tighten, which squeezes urine out of the bladder. At the same time, the brain signals the sphincter muscles to relax to let urine exit the bladder through the urethra. When all the signals occur in the correct order, normal urination occurs.
Facts about urine:
• Average urine production in adults is about 1 – 2 l per day. The amount of urine depends on the amounts of fluid and food a person consumes and how much fluid is lost through sweat and breathing.
• Normal urine is sterile fluid. It contains fluids, salts and waste products, but it is free of bacteria, viruses and fungi.