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Exercise 7. Answer the questions to the text.

1. What does the urinary system consist of?

2. What form do the kidneys have?

3. Where are the kidneys situated?

4. What is the function of nephrons?

5. What is the function of the ureters?

6. Where is the urine stored before it is discharged from the body?

7. What is the function of the urethra?

8. What conveys urine from the kidneys?

9. What is the form of urinary bladder?

10. What is the difference between male and female urethra?


Exercise 8. Find corresponding equivalents:

1. renal pelvis 2. to eliminate waste products 3. kidneys and urinary bladder 4. renal medulla 5. ureter and urethra 6. a thick-walled narrow cylindrical tube 7. to discharge urine 8. to be held in place by ligaments 9. to prevent backward flow of the urine 10. small folds in the bladder mucosa a.сечовід та сечовипускальний канал b.підтримуватися зв’язками c.мозкова речовина нирки d.виводи продукти відходів життєдіяльності e.перешкоджати зворотному відтоку сечі f.маленькі складки у слизової оболонці сечового міхура g.ниркова миска h.товстостінна вузька циліндрична трубка i.нирки та сечовий міхур j.переносити сечу

Exercise 9. Agree of contradict the following statements.

1. Urine is stored in the urethra before discharging from the body.

2. A nephron regulates the concentration of water and soluble substances.

3. The urinary bladder is a hollow bean-shaped organ, which discharges urine from the body.

4. The ureters convey the urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder.

5. Kidney is a musculomembranous tube which stores the urine before eliminating from the body.

6. The urine is discharged from the body through the ureters.

7. Urethra is a tube that connects kidney and urinary bladder.

8. The main function of ureters is to regulate the concentration of water and soluble substances.


Exercise 10. Translate words given in italics.

1. Urine is stored in сечовий міхур.

2. There are 2 нирки in the human being.

3. Сечовід виводить urine from the kidneys.

4. All urine is виділяється from the body by сечовипускальний канал.

5. These organs are situated in the posterior part of черевної порожнини.

6. Ниркова миска is the hollow funnel, into which urine is discharged before entering the ureter.

7. Renal stoneis a solid piece of material that forms in the kidney from substances in the сечі.

8. Nephrons виводять продукти відходів from the body.

Exercise 11. Fill in prepositions from the box below where necessary:

Most urine infections are … … bacteria that come from your own intestines. Some bacteria lie …… your anus after you pass a stool. These bacteria can sometimes travel …. your urethra and …. your bladder. Some bacteria penetrate ….. urine and multiply quickly to cause infection.

Cystitis means inflammation ….. the bladder. It is usually caused …….. a urine infection. Typical symptoms are pain when urine is conveyed ….. ….. the body, blood in your urine and a fever.

Your immune system can often clear the infection. Without antibiotics, cystitis (particularly mild cases), may go ….. on its own …. a few days. However, symptoms can sometimes last ….. a week or so if you do not take antibiotics.


for by away into out of in around of to due to into

Grammar in Use



  Active Passive
Present (not) asking – той, що питає (not) being asked – той, якого спитали
Perfect (not) having asked – той, що спитав (not) having been asked – той, якого спитали

Exercise 1. Translate the sentences into your native language paying attention to Participles:

1. Microorganisms invading the human body can develop an infection.

2. Vessels carrying blood to the heart are called veins.

3. The liver consisting of loves is covered by fibrous tissues.

4. A nephron eliminating wastes from the body, regulates blood volume and blood pressure,

5. Being examined by the physician the patient was prescribed antibiotics.

6. Being located in the posterior part of the abdomen the kidneys receive blood from the paired renal arteries.

7. Having asked the patient about his complains the doctor could make a preliminary diagnosis.

8. Having been operated successfully the patient was gradually recovering.

Absolute Participle Construction My friend suffering from a severe pain, I called in a doctor. Так як мій друг страждав від сильного болю, я викликав лікаря.   External bleeding being profuse, the patient was taken to the hospital. Так як зовнішня кровотеча була дуже надмірною, то пацієнта забрали до лікарні.   The surgeon having performed the operation, the patient’s condition became better. Після того, як хірург зробив операцію, стан пацієнта покращився.   The operation having been performed, the patient’s condition became better. Коли було зроблено операцію, стан пацієнта покращився.  

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