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Бухгалтерский учёт
Войное дело



I. The words and word combinations to be remembered:

to deal with – иметь дело с чем - либо

marine vehicle – морское транспортное средство

naval – морской

complexity – сложность

to evolve – выделять, выявлять

paucity of data – малое количество данных

seakeeping – мореходные качества

to frown – проявлять неодобрение

fixture – крепление, закрепление

substitute – заменять, замещать

to encompass – охватывать, окружать

II. Read and translate the following text:

Naval architecture is an engineering discipline dealing with the design, construction and repair of marine vehicles.

Due to the complexity associated with operating in a marine environment naval architecture is by necessity a co-operative effort between groups of technically skilled individuals that are specialists in particular fields, often co-ordinated by a lead naval architect. This inherent complexity also means that the analytical tools available are much less evolved than those for designing aircraft, cars and even space craft. This is due primarily to the paucity of data on the environment the marine vehicle is required to work in and the complexity of the interaction of waves and wind on a marine structure.

The areas of expertise filled by naval architects are typically:

· Hydrostatics (ex: trim & stability)

· Hydrodynamics (ex: resistance and powering, seakeeping, manoeuvring)

· Arrangements (ex: concept design, volume & access)

· Structures (ex: global strength, seaway responses)

Traditionally, naval architecture has been more craft than science. The suitability of a vessel's shape was judged by looking at a half-model of a vessel or a prototype. Ungainly shapes or abrupt transitions were frowned on as being flawed. This included, rigging, deck arrangements, and even fixtures. Subjective descriptors such as ungainly, full, and fine were used as a substitute for the more precise terms used today. A vessel was, and still is described as having a ‘fair’ shape. The term ‘fair’ is meant to denote not only a smooth transition from fore to aft but also a shape that was ‘right.’ Determining what ‘right’ is in a particular situation in the absence of definitive supporting analysis encompasses the art of naval architecture to this day.

III. Answer the following questions:

1. What is naval architecture?

2. What is the function of a lead naval architect?

3. What are the areas of expertise filled by naval architects?

4. Why has naval architecture been more craft than science?

5. What does the term “fair” mean?

IV. Make sentences of your own, using the following words and word combinations:

Engineering discipline, marine vehicles, technically skilled individuals, due to the paucity of data, hydrodynamics, deck arrangements, the art of naval architecture.

V. Ask as many questions as possible to the following sentences:

1. Modern low cost digital computers and dedicated software have enabled naval architects to more accurately predict the performance of a marine vehicle.

2. A naval architect also has a specialist function in ensuring that a safe, economic and seaworthy design is produced.

3. Naval architects typically work for shipyards, ship owners, design firms and consultancies.

4. The suitability of a vessel’s shape was judged by looking at a half model of a vessel or a prototype.

5. Naval architecture is an engineering discipline dealing with the design, construction and repair of marine vehicles.

VI. Complete the following sentences using the text:

1. Naval architecture is an engineering discipline …

2. Due to the complexity associated with operating …

3. The areas of expertise filled by …

4. The suitability of a vessel’s shape was …

5. Subjective descriptors such as …

6. The term “fair” is meant …

VII. Translate the text “The Naval Architect.”

A naval architect is a professional engineer who is responsible for the design, construction, and/or repair of ships, boats, other marine vessels, and offshore structures, both commercial and military, including:

· Merchant ships - oil/gas tankers, cargo ships, bulk carriers, container ships

· Passenger/vehicle ferries, cruise ships

· Warships - frigates, destroyers, aircraft carriers, amphibious ships

· Submarines and underwater vehicles

· Icebreakers

· Offshore drilling platforms, semi-submersibles

· High speed craft - hovercraft, multi-hull ships, hydrofoil craft

· Workboats - fishing boats, anchor handling tug supply vessels, platform supply vessels, tug boats, pilot vessels, rescue craft

· Yachts, power boats, and other recreational craft

Some of these vessels are amongst the largest and most complex and highly valued movable structures produced by mankind. They are the most efficient method of transporting the world's raw materials and products known to man.

Modern engineering on this scale is essentially a team activity conducted by specialists in their respective fields and disciplines. However, it is the naval architects who often integrate their activities and take ultimate responsibility for the overall project. This demanding leadership role requires managerial qualities and the ability to bring together the often-conflicting demands of the various design constraints to produce a product, which is "fit for the purpose."

To undertake all these tasks, a naval architect must have an understanding of many branches of engineering and must be in the forefront of high technology areas such as vessel arrangements, hydrodynamics, stability, and structures. He or she must be able to effectively utilize the services provided by scientists, lawyers, accountants, and business people of many kinds.

VIII. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English:

1. Теория кораблестроения – инженерная дисциплина, связанная с дизайном, строительством и ремонтом морских судов.

2. Традиционно, теория кораблестроения была больше искусством, чем наукой.

3. Современное инженерное искусство – это деятельность, выполняемая специалистами в определенной области.

4. Кораблестроитель обычно работает на судоверфи, дизайнерские и консалтинговые фирмы, пароходство и правительство.

IX. Retell the text “Naval Architecture.”


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