Polycystic kidney disease
A) inflammation of the kidney caused by an infection
B) a rare disorder that results in excretion of amino acid cystine into the urine
C) a hereditary disorder in which many cysts form in both kidneys
D) a rare form of kidney tissue death
A) the external structure of the male reproductive system
B) the external structure of the female reproductive system
C) the internal structure of the male reproductive system
D) the internal structure of the female reproductive system
A) the inability of a couple to achieve a pregnancy
B) the ability of a couple to achieve a pregnancy
C) the inability to control one’s exertion of urine
D) the inability to move or take actions
A) a technique for looking directly at the fetus within the uterus
B) an instrument for looking directly at the fetus within the uterus
C) estimation of the size of the fetus, especially its head, prior to
D) a morbid condition in the embryo or fetus
A) a hollow organ in female in which the fetus develop before birth
B) organ in the uterus that nourishes the fetus
C) flexible tube connecting the placenta to the navel of a fetus
D) small hollow in the centre of the abdomen
A) resembling a bacterium
B) resembling a virus
C) resembling a fungus
D) resembling protozoa
A) a malignant tumour originating in the air sacs of the lungs
B) a malignant tumour of bone derived from flesh or connective tissue
C) a benign tumour originating in the tissue that lines the outer surface of the brain
D) a malignant tumour of kidneys
A) a gland that is located in the middle of the brain;
B) a ductless gland located in the mediasternum behind the sternum and extends into the neck;
C) a gland which is located behind the stomach and produces hormones in the cells which are called islets of Langerhans;
D) one of the exocrine glands.
A) a hormone produced in pancreas, it lowers the sugar level; affects the metabolism of glucose protein and fat throughout the body;
B) is produced in pituitary gland and causes muscles of the uterus and milk ducts in the breast to contract;
C) is produced in kidneys and controls blood pressure;
D) regulates growth, maturation and the speed of metabolism.
A) a disorder in which insufficient levels of antidiuretic hormone cause polydipsia and polyuria;
B) a condition in which an abnormal amount of sugar is present in the urine;
C) a large gland that lies behind the stomach;
D) a condition in which blood sugar levels are abnormally low.
A) excess in amount of urine;
B) presence of sugar in proteins;
C) inflammation of the bladder;
D) discharge of bloody urine.
Chronic kidney failure
A) a slowly progressing decline in kidney function that leads to azotemia;
B) a bacterial infection of both kidneys;
C) a rapid decline in kidneys’ ability to clean the blood of toxic substances;
D) an inflammation of both kidneys.
A) spongelike vascular organs which develop during pregnancy in the uterine wall;
B) the female organs of the reproductive system which include the fallopian tubes;
C) two milk-producing glands consisting of special lactiferous ducts and sinuses, carrying milk to the nipples;
D) the glands that secrete a thick fluid which as part of semen aids motility of the sperm.
A) a disorder involving abnormal behaviour and thought, beginning between age 7 and the start of adolescence;
B) a disorder in which a young child can’t develop normal social relationship, behaves in compulsive and ritualistic ways, and usually fails to develop normal intelligence;
C) a subaverage intellectual ability present from birth or early infancy;
D) a medically qualified physician who specializes in the study and treatment of mental disorders.
A) a disorder of pathologic changes of the nervous system;
B) a congenital defect that is present at birth;
C) one of birth defects which is inherited by receiving abnormal genes from one or both parents;
D) a factor or substance that can induce or increase the risk of a birth defect.
A) a pathological growth lacking the systemic integration in the body which is characteristic of physiological growth;
B) an infectious disease which commonly develops in the arms or legs;
C) a pathological condition characterized by rash, vomiting and high temperature;
D) an inherited disorder which may lead to irreversible changes in respiratory system.
A) a malignant tumour of cartilage cells occurring in a bone, most frequently in a femur;
B) a rare malignant tumour of the placenta originating in the outer membrane surrounding the fetus;
C) a malignant tumour of the lips;
D) a rare malignant tumour of fat cells.
A) the use of freeze to alleviate pain and stiffness in joints and muscles;
B) an absence of the ability to sense heat and coldness;
C) the use of heat to alleviate pain and stiffness in joints and muscles;
D) a device for registering temperature.
A) a medicine said to be a cure for all diseases and disorders;
B) a general atrophy of the body;
C) an epidemic that affects a wide geographical area;
D) a medicine for treatment of pancreatitis.
A) the body’s ability to live forever;
B) the body’s ability to avoid or not be affected by infection or disease;
C) the body’s disability to move;
D) the person’s sudden wish or need to do something, without stopping to think about the results.
A) an illness that is caused by bacteria or a virus and that affects one part of the body;
B) the chemical processes in living things that change food, etc. into energy and materials for growth;
C) the ability to know something by using your feelings rather than by considering the facts;
D) the study and treatment of diseases and injuries.
A) a gland in the brain which produces hormones which control the development and functions of the body;
B) a gland behind the stomach which produces hormones in the cells called islets of Langerhans;
C) a gland near the kidneys which produces adrenalin;
D)a gland of the exocrine system.
A) a fear of people from other countries;
B) a fear of open spaces;
C) a fear of childbirth;
D) a fear of closed spaces.
A) the fluid secreted by the lacrymal glands;
B) saline fluid secreted by the sweat glands;
D) the hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex.
A) an agent that kills bacteria;
B) a killing of people;
C) a self-destruction as a deliberate act;
D) an agent that kills fungi.
A) very fat;
B) very thin;
C) very serious;
D) very hungry.
C) sudden noisy expulsion of air from the lungs;
D) sudden blowing out of air through the nose and mouth.
A) less mentally developed than other people;
B) more mentally developed than other people;
C) less physically developed than other people;
D) more physically developed than other people.
A) a region of the body between the anus and the genital organs, including some of the underlying structures;
B) a hollow muscular organ within the pelvic cavity of the females housing the fetus;
C) a gland in the males that surrounds the neck of the bladder and urethra;
D) the external female genitals.
A) some vegetable;
B) a baby;
C) a young human before it has been born;
D) an adult.
A) a sexual attraction to children (of either sex) that may cause deviant behaviour;
B) the general medicine of childhood;
C) an abnormal fear of children;
D) a sexual attraction to animals.
A) a medically qualified physician who specializes in the treatment of mental disorders;
B) a person who studies and treats physiological disorders;
C) a person who is mentally retarded;
D) a person who is engaged in the scientific study of the mind.
A) natural inherent power of the body not to be affected by infections, harmful microorganisms, diseases, etc.;
B) the baby’s unwillingness to be born;
C) gynaecological pathology in which a pregnant woman resists giving birth to her child;
D) absence of any forces of the body to fight against infections, harmful microorganisms, diseases, etc.
A) erythrocyte sedimentation rate;
B) red blood cell;
C) lymph node;
D) white blood cell.
A) the scientific study about general regularities of development, course and termination of diseases;
B) medical treatment of injuries or diseases;
C) a slight disorder of the brain that causes difficulty in reading and spelling, for example, but does not affect intelligence;
D) pain caused by difficulty in digesting food.
A) a medical condition of the oral cavity that causes gingivitis;
B) a respiratory disorder characterized by difficulty in breathing;
C) inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose and mouth;
D) a doctor qualified to treat respiratory disorders.
A) underdevelopment of an organ;
B) overdevelopment of an organ;
C) organ excision;
D) organ incision.
A) an inflammation of the skin;
B a serious disease in which cells in someone’s body grow in an abnormal way;
C) an infectious disorder;
D) a lower intellectual development.
A) return of the food from stomach;
B) feeling of happiness;
C) feeling of sickness;
D) pancreatic secretions.
A) assisting in the birth;
B) after birth;
C) before birth;
D) process of delivery.
A) abnormal growth of tissues;
B) changes in genes;
C) spina bifida;
D) mental abnormality.
A) substance that kills bacteria by poisoning them directly either inside or outside the body;
B) medicine that relieves pain;
C) substance that makes the bowels move;
D) medicine that suppresses coughing.
A) presence of protein in the urine;
B) discharge of bloody urine;
C) presence of sugar in the urine;
D) presence of pus in the urine.
A) a disease that causes bleeding;
B) any abnormality in joint development;
C) bone cancer;
D) inflammation that causes pain and swelling in the joints.
A) secondary and unexpected effect of the drug;
B) the ability to cure selectively organ or tissue and to restore normal body function;
C) overdosage of some drugs;
D) the ability of the organs to restore themselves.
A) a branch of dietetics concerned with therapeutic uses of food and diet;
B) a refusal to take food;
C) any food poison, especially one developing in grain;
D) an abnormal consumption of food.
A) the presence of milk sugar in the urine;
B) the period of milk secretion;
C) any disease of the mammary glands;
D) an absence of milk in the breasts.
A) diminished secretion;
B) increased secretion;
C) normal secretion;
D) extremely high secretion.