1. The most famous act was the Red Flag Act of 1865, according to which the speed of the steam-driven vehicles was limited to 4 miles per hour and a man with a red flag had to walk in front of it. 2. In case of mechanical stabilization granular or cohesive materials are added to the subsoil. 3. Scania has achieved its position amongst European bus builders due to its safety, economy, quality and service. 4. In addition to quality assurance the company offers its customers extensive international aftersale service network. 5. Jaguar was forced to consider producing its own station wagon model because of main competitors.
Упр. 9. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на перевод сказуемого.
1. Dual-stage front airbags have been introduced on this model. 2. The basic specification level includes ABS braking and an emergency braking system. 3. The plant will be producing 1,000 cars a year. 4. Honda has also added a triple cone synchronizer between first and second gear. 5. The BMW X-5 off-road sports car, which appeared several years ago, has undergone its first comprehensive upgrade with a focus on improving performance and safety features. 6. Increased power has reduced the acceleration time and slightly increased the top speed. 7. The new Eclipse Sport Coupe will hit the market two weeks before the schedule. 8. New Eclipse cars have already appeared at motor shows and G8 version starts at $20,000.
Упр. 10. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на перевод инфинитива.
1. The purpose of a gasoline car is to convert gasoline into motion. 2. The easiest way to create motion from gasoline is to burn the gasoline inside an engine. 3. The fuel in a steam engine burns outside the engine to create steam. 4. When the piston reaches the top of its stroke, the spark plug emits a spark to ignite the gasoline. 5. The spark must happen at the right moment for things to work properly. 6. The intake and exhaust valves open at the proper time to let in air and fuel and to let out exhaust. 7. First the piston moves down to let the engine take in a cylinder - full of air and gasoline, then the piston moves back up to compress this fuel/air mixture. 8. The main aim of the piston rings is to prevent the fuel/air mixture from leaking into the sump during compression and combustion.
Упр. 11. Заполните таблицу, образуя указанные части речи, и переведите их.
Упр. 12. Прочитайте и переведите текст. Пополните свой словарь терминов по изучаемой специальности.
Have you ever opened the hood of your car and wondered what was going on in there? A car engine can look like a big confusing jumble of metal, tubes and wires. You might want to know what's going on or perhaps you are buying a new car.
The purpose of a gasoline car engine is to convert gasoline into motion so that your car can move. The easiest way to create motion from gasoline is to burn the gasoline inside an engine. Therefore, a car engine is an internal combustion engine - combustion takes place internally. Two things to note:
1. There are different kinds of internal combustion engines. Diesel engines are one form and gas turbine engines are another. Each has its own advantages and disadvantages.
2. There is such a thing as an external combustion engine. A steam engine in old-fashioned trains and steamboats is the best example of an external combustion engine. The fuel (coal, wood, oil, whatever) in a steam engine burns outside the engine to create steam, and the steam creates motion inside the engine. Internal combustion is a lot more efficient (takes less fuel per mile) than external combustion, plus an internal combustion engine is a lot smaller than an equivalent external combustion engine.
Almost all cars today use a reciprocating internal combustion engine because this engine is relatively efficient, relatively inexpensive and relatively easy to refuel.
If you put a tiny amount of high-energy fuel (like gasoline) in a small, enclosed space and ignite it, an incredible amount of energy is released in the form of expanding gas. For example, if you can create a cycle that allows you to set off explosions like this hundreds of times per minute, and if you can use that energy in a useful way, what you have is the core of a car engine!
Almost all cars currently use what is called a four-stroke combustion cycle to convert gasoline into motion. The four-stroke cycle is also known as the Otto cycle, in honor of Nikolaus Otto, who invented it in 1867. They are - intake stroke, compression stroke, combustion stroke and exhaust stroke.