Words in this function modify verbs, adjectives and adverbs, specifying the circumstances of a happening.
Adverbial modifiers may be expressed by an adverb, anoun with a preposition, an infinitive, an ing-iorm with a conjunction or a preposition, a participle with a conjunction, an adjective with a conjunction and an absolute construction.
According to their meaning, adverbial modifiers are sub- divided into:
1) adverbial modifiers of place and direction,
e.g. He found himself in a lonely street.
The procession moved slowly towards the embankment. He'll be heretomorrow.
Adverbial modifiers of time,
e.g. I'llgive you a telephone call tonight. Bring him back on Sunday. He kept silent a long time before answering. When tired,he has his supper in his room.
3) adverbial modifiers of frequency,
e.g. He seldomspoke with such frankness. She has music lessons twice a week.
4) adverbial modifiers of degree,
e.g. He came back home prettylate last night. The night was very still. He knows his subject perfectly.
Adverbial modifiers of manner,
e.g. She was crying bitterly. Hecame here by taxi. He opened the door with difficulty. They walked very fast. The bus passed us without stopping.
Adverbial modifiers of attending circumstances,
e.g. Itis very romantic to take a walk by moonlight. I don't feel like going out in this weather. She looked up at him, herface smiling happily. He lived all by himself in an old house on the river, with all
his family gone and forgotten. Ilooked round the room, thesense of being watched acute
Adverbial modifiers of description,
e.g. Fay's eyes continually moved in his Father's direction, as
though seeking his approval. The shop was freshly painted, with a large green awning to
protect the window. He stood there very quietly, his hand outstretched.
Adverbial modifiers of purpose,
e.g. Idid my best to preventher from making a mistake.
Adverbial modifiers of cause,
e.g. Our flight was delayed owing to the storm.
Adverbial modifiers of comparison,
e.g. Shesat still like a statue. He was as ugly as a monkey.
I've got a more difficult problem to solve than finda new house.
Adverbial modifiers of consequence,
e.g. He had to read only the first ten pages to knowwhat the
book was about.
He was clever enough to understandit. Iwas too tired to gofor a walk.
12) adverbial modifiers of concession,
e.g. When he returned his wife was still at the table, though pre- paring to go.
Whatever the reason,she should have come. Though tired,he agreed to show us the garden.
Adverbial modifiers of condition,
e.g. He said he would do it if necessary.
But for the rain, I'dhave gone off an hour ago. To look at her,you wouldn't believe she was a famous ac- tress.
Adverbial modifiers of exception,
e.g. He had no choice but to obeythe orders.
IX. The Attribute
Words in this function modify nouns (and sometimes pro- nouns) giving them some kind of characteristic.
Attributes may be expressed by an adjective, a pronoun, a noun in the genitive or common case, a noun with a preposition, an infinitive, an ing-form, a participle and, occasionally, an ad- verb.
Depending on the closeness of the syntactic ties between the attribute and its noun, we distinguish closeand loose attributes. Close attributes form a tight sense unit with their nouns. Loose attributes are less tightly connected with their nouns. Adding more information to or explaining what is being said in the sen- tence, they are regarded as a more independent member of the sentence and, hence, often separated by a comma from the rest of the sentence.
e.g. A largecat jumped down the windowseat. They gave eachchild a bigapple. I'd like anothercup of tea. Iborrowed twopounds from Jane'sbrother. Isaw by theirfaces that they had learned something new. Itwas an act of despairon her part. She admired his way of doingthings.
He is not a man torely on.
The clouds were lit by the setting sun.
She saw the lightedwindows of the cottage.
It was a pleasure to listento him.
Itwas no use talkingto her.
The thenheadmaster introduced the rule.
2) Loose attributes,
e.g. Happy and carefree,the children ran down the hill.
You behave like a schoolboy afraid ofhis teacher.
Paintedgreen, the house was almost invisible on the forest- covered hill.
Craig took the baby out of the pram and lifted it high in the air. The baby, tryingto tug at his moustache, crowed glee- fully.
X. The Apposition
Words in this function modify nouns, explaining and spec- ifying their meaning by giving them another name. Appositions are usually expressed by nouns.
e.g. Ann, the daughterof the landlady, was always ready to baby- sit for us.
I asked Miss Grey, a neighbour and an old friend of mine,to dinner.
The Glory, a British steamship,was to arrive on Monday morning.