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Demonstrative Pronouns



§ ll.There are four demonstrative pronouns in English: this,
that, such
and same. They all may be used as noun pronouns and
as adjective pronouns.

The pronouns this and that change for number. Their corre-
sponding plural forms are: these and those.

§ 12. The pronoun this (these) refers to what is near in space,
time or conception (a), that (those) to what is farther off (b).

e.g. a) Do you know these people? Thisis Harry Field, my coach,
and thisis Jake Spring, the producer.

Take thispear. It looks very ripe.

"Look at this,"he said and showed me his tie.

When he stopped talking, she wondered, "Why is he tell-
ing me all this?"

"Maybe you don't want to go to thisparty," he asked hop-
ing she would say "no".

b) Do you see thosehouses in the distance? That'swhere we
are going.

Is thatyour son?

They ate the pie and drank the coffee in silence. When
they had finished, Delany said, "Now I'll have thatci-
gar you offered me."

He was deaf but she didn't think that many people noticed
that.

The pronouns this (these) and that (those) may also have other
applications.

1) In some cases this (these) may refer to what is to follow,
that (those) to what precedes.

e.g. After I've listened to you very attentively I'll tell you this —

Idon't think you should trust the man.

But I'm glad to see you have an interest in sports. That
means we have two things in common.

2) This (these) and that (those) are often used with nouns indi-
cating time. This (these) is used for time which is future or just
past. That (those) is used for time which is clearly past.


e.g. "Why don't you come and see me some time?" "How about

this Sunday, if it's convenient?"
Father had to go to Chicago this morning.
I remember that he woke up early that morning.
She looked flushed and well, although she had a heart attack

that summer.

3) Sometimes the use of this (these) and that (those) is emo-
tionally coloured. The kind of feeling implied (affection, vexation,
disgust, contempt, etc.) depends on the situation.

e.g. Will this dog ever stop barking?

Do you really believe in those ideas?
When will you stop trumping that piano?
He is one of those so-called modern poets.

4) The pronoun that (those) may be used instead of a noun al-
ready mentioned. It is called a prop-word in this case,
e.g. He found it easier to believe that her actions were those of a

spoilt girl.

He hung his daughter's portrait beside that of his wife's.
These poems are not so good as those written by you last

year.

I entered by the door opposite to that opening into the gar-
den.

She was a good teacher. She knew how to teach bright chil-
dren and those who were slow.
I was interested to learn that the cafe was the same that we

had visited five years before.

As is seen from the above examples, that (those) in this case is
followed by a prepositional phrase, a participle, an ing form or a

clause.

5) That is often used instead of it. In this case that appears to

be more emphatic than it.

e.g. I'm going to practise law. I have that all planned.
"Let's send him a wire." "That's an excellent idea."
"His gun went off and he nearly killed himself." "I didn't

know that."

"Tell her I'm sorry I missed her." "I'll do that."
"I'm going to stay here a while." "That's fine."


6) Those followed by a who-clause, a participle or an ing-iorm
refers to persons.

e.g. Serious newspapers are read by those (=people) who want to
know about important happenings everywhere.

Even those (=people) who do not like his pictures are not in-
different to him.

Those (=people) injured in the accident were taken to hospital.

Note. Those present 'присутствующие' and those concerned 'заинтересован-
ные лица' are set phrases.

7) In spoken English that may be used as an adverbial modifi-
er of degree.

e.g. I did not think he was that stupid.
I will go that far, but no further.
He should know that much about his trade.

§ 13. That, this are often found as part of set phrases. Here
are some of them:

e.g. "Mike will tell you that I seldom pass through this place
without dropping in." "That's right." ('Это верно.')

"I have a car outside. I'll give you a ride home." "Oh, that's
all right. It isn't much of a walk." ('He надо'. 'Ничего'.)
My husband said you were properly brought up. He always
notices things like that. (=such things)
Would you like a bag like this? (=such a bag)
I hate it when they dance like this. (=in this way)
I had never heard him speak like that before. (=in that way)
It was May, but for all that the rain was falling as in the

heaviest autumn downpours, (=despite that)
My mother intended to have a glorious supper — not that
she could eat much nowadays, but for the sake of style
and my sake, ('не то чтобы...')
She was young and beautiful. More than that, she was happy.

('более того...')

You ought to know better than that, ('быть умнее')
"Do you want to speak to me about your work?" "Oh, hardly

that." ('да нет, не совсем'; 'совсем не о том')
Не talked about his responsibilities and all that, ('и тому по-
добное')


I'm thinking of your future, you know. That's why I'm giv-
ing you a piece of advice, ('поэтому')

After that I did not see him for several days, ('после этого')

Marion's concern was directly for me. "Yes, it was a pity you
ran across her," she said. "Mind you, I expect you puzzled
her as much as she did you — that is, if I know anything
about you." ('то есть')

"You know what people think when a man like him dies."
"That is?" "People imagine it's a revenge." ('то есть?'

'а именно?')
Let's leave it at that, ('оставим все так'; 'остановимся на

этом')

So that's that, ('вот так-то'; 'такие-то дела')
I told you before, I won't do it, and that's that, ('и все')
That settles it. ('На том и порешим.')
What were you doing down there, or what was I doing there

for that matter? ('впрочем, даже')

Note. Note that English people speaking of their country say this country
whereas in Russian it would be наша страна.

§ 14. The demonstrative pronoun such may mean of this or
that kind
(a) or indicate degree (b). Such is followed by the indefi-
nite article before singular countable nouns.

e.g. a) If I were you I would not have said such a thing about him.
He was a silent, ambitious man. Such men usually succeed.
Such is the present state of things.

The position of Dan Crusher was such that he was wel-
come in any club,
b) He is such a bore.

He wrote such desperate letters to me that year.

The meaning of such is often completed by a clause of con-
sequence introduced by that or a phrase introduced by as.
e.g. I had such a busy morning that I had no time to call you up-

He cut such an absurd figure that I felt inclined to laugh.

I never saw such a handsome man as Jim's father.

Mr Clark was afraid that his promotion would never come

because there was such a thing, he said, as junior clerks

trying to draw attention to themselves.


Such may be followed by an infinitive with as.

e.g. His carelessness is such as to make it unlikely that he will
pass his examination.

Note that such may be combined with some indefinite pro-
nouns.

e.g. I'll do no such thing.

He didn't say any such thing.

Any such request is sure to be turned down.

On every such occasion dozens of people get injured.

Some such story was told to me years ago.

§ 15- Such is sometimes found as part of set phrases. Here are
some of them:

e.g. They export a lot of fruit, such as oranges, lemons, etc.

(= for example 'такие, как')
His education, such as it was, was finished by the time he

was fifteen, ('каково бы оно ни было')
My services, such as they are, are at your disposal, ('каковы

бы они ни были')
John is the captain of the team, and, as such, he is to decide

what is to be done, ('как таковой')

§16. The demonstrative pronoun same means 'identical'. It is
always preceded by the definite article.
e.g. We don't have to go all in the same car.
I was astonished and at the same time very much excited.
In autumn the school re-opened. The same students came to
George's classes.
His stories set one's imagination to work. The same is true
of his articles.
The meaning of same is often completed by a clause intro-
duced by that or as.
e.g. He wore the same suit that I had seen him in five years before.
He ate his sandwiches at midday in the same places as I did.
"You haven't changed," I said smiling. He had the same ab-
surd appearance that I remembered.


Same may also be followed by a phrase introduced by as.

e.g. Saying good-bye, my aunt gave me the same warning as on

the day of my father's departure.

His head was disproportionally large, built on the same lines
as his sister's but with finer features.

§ 17. Same is sometimes found as part of set phrases. Here
are some of them:

e.g. It's all the same to me. (=It makes no difference to me.)

I asked him what he wanted to start with. It was all the

same to him. (=it made no difference to him.)
I don't think he'll wish to see me. But I'll come all the same.

(=in spite of that)

"How is he today?" "Much the same." (=not apparently differ-
ent)

Indefinite Pronouns

§ 18. The indefinite pronouns express various degrees and var-
ious kinds of indefiniteness. We find the following subgroups
among them:

1) indefinite pronouns proper:

a) some, any, no;

b) somebody, anybody, nobody;
someone, anyone, no one;
something, anything, nothing;

c) one, none

2) distributive pronouns:

a) all, every, each, other, either, neither, both;

b) everybody, everyone, everything

3) quantitative pronouns:

much, many, little, few, a little, a few, a lot of, lots of,
a great deal, a great many,
etc.

§ 19. The pronoun some may be used as an adjective pronoun
and as a noun pronoun. It has several meanings. Some usually ex-
presses an indefinite number or amount or indefinite quality.


e.g. On such days my mother would give me some pennies to buy

sweets or a magazine.

They did give us some nice things to eat, didn't they?
I was terrified that some disaster was waiting for me.
I had been playing cricket with some of the neighbouring

children.

The visitor asked me to describe some of the work we do in
our laboratory.

Some, used with a singular countable noun, may mean 'a par-
ticular but unidentified person or thing'.

e.g. Some boy had written a Latin word on the blackboard.
We must first think of some plan.

Some is very often used for contrast. Then it is strongly stressed.
e.g. I enjoy some music, but not much of it.

Some of us agree with the statement, some disagree.

Some may also mean 'approximately',
e.g. It happened some twenty years ago.

When used as a noun pronoun, some may be singular or plu-
ral. It depends on whether some refers to countable or uncount-
able nouns.

e.g. Some of his opinions were hard to accept.

Some of the food was packed in waterproof bags.

As a rule, some is used in affirmative sentences (see the exam-
ples above). In interrogative and negative sentences it is changed
into any or no (see §§ 20-21 below). However, there are instances
when some remains unchanged in interrogative and negative sen-
tences. It happens when the question or negation does not concern
the part of the sentence containing some, i.e. when the part of the
sentence containing some remains affirmative in meaning.

e.g. May I give you some more tea?

I could not answer some of his questions.
Did you see some of his poems published in the magazine?
I'm going away for a week. So I shan't be able to see some
interesting games.


Not all your answers are correct. Some are, some aren't.
You know some women can't see the telephone without taking
the receiver off.

§ 20. The pronoun any is also used as an adjective pronoun
and as a noun pronoun. In affirmative sentences any means 'it
does not matter who, what or which'.

e.g. Come any day you like.

I was interested in any new prospect of change.
Any who have questions to ask are requested to do so in writ-
ing.
"Which newspaper do you want me to buy?" "Any will do."

Her voice carried well in any hall.
Note. Any number of is a set phrase, meaning 'a great many',
e.g. I have any number ofplants in my garden.

In interrogative and negative sentences any is used instead of some.

e.g. Is there any chance of seeing any of his pictures?
I did not see any change in his life.
They asked him for some money. He said he didn't have any.

It should be noted that a negative meaning may be conveyed
in the sentence not only by not, but also by never, without, sel-
dom, hardly,
etc. It may also be expressed in another clause.

e.g. He never had any luck.

He went away without saying good-bye to any of us.

Now that he lived in the country he seldom had any visitors.

The Dutchman spoke French with hardly any accent.

No one is under any obligation to you.

I don't think any of us ought to wish the result to be different.

Any is used when some doubt or condition is implied. This of-
ten occurs in object clauses introduced by if or whether or in con-
ditional clauses.

e.g. Let me know if you hear any news.

I wonder if you have met any of these people before.
If you have any news, call me up right away.


If you still have any of my father's letters, send them to me,
please.

Any may be used as an adverbial modifier of degree in the sen-
tence.

e.g. He isn't any better.

In spite of your advice she isn't any the wiser.

§ 21. The pronoun no is negative in meaning and used only as
an adjective pronoun. It may mean 'not any' or 'not a'.

e.g. He had no tie on.

They have no friends in London.

He had no desire to take decisions.

There are no letters for you today.

I have no money left.

There were no people in the hall.

No boy at the school had ever seen the sea.

He is no hero.

The girl was no beauty.

The old man was no fool.

Note the set phrase to be no good.
e.g. He is no good as a pianist, ('никуда не годится')

§ 22. There are the following compound pronouns formed with
some-, any- and no-:

someone — anyone — no one
somebody — anybody — nobody
something — anything — nothing

They are all used as noun pronouns and the rules for the use
of some, any and no in different kinds of sentences hold good for
them (see §§ 19-21 above).

The compounds in -one and in -body are singular in meaning
and can be used only of persons,
e.g. There is someone in his office. Do you hear them talking?

He'd told my landlady he was looking out for someone to
paint him.


My mother wanted me to give more money to the fund than
anyone in the form.

Is there anyone at home?

No one was in a hurry. No one seemed to think that to-
morrow existed.

I found my mother in the kitchen. There was no one else at

home.
Somebody must have been using my books. They've got all

misplaced on the shelf.

Anybody can see that the whole thing has been a failure.
Did you meet anybody on your way home?
Nobody can help him under the circumstances.
The compounds in -one and in -body can have the form of the
genitive case.

e.g. He isn't going to be in anybody's way at this hour of the night.
Did you take anybody's photograph at the party?

Note. When the compounds in -one and in -body are followed by else, the geni-
tive case suffix -'s is added after else.
e.g.
That's not my hat. It's somebody else's.

The difference between the compounds in -body and those in —

one is that the latter are, as a rule, more individualizing, i.e. the

compounds in -body refer to persons collectively, whereas those in

one refer to individuals.

Cf. Somebody is sure to get interested in the job. (=some people,

one or more persons)
This is a letter from someone interested in the job. (=some

person, one person)

Nobody knew about her arrival. (= no people)
No one had come to meet her. (= not a person)
As a result, the compounds in -body are never followed by an
of-phrase, while the compounds in -one sometimes are.
e.g. Does anyone of you correspond with her family?

The compounds in -thing can be used only of things. They are
also singular in meaning but they cannot have the form of the
genitive case.


e.g. There is something wrong with him.

We were almost outside our house before I took in that some-
thing was not right.

"Why don't you say something?" he demanded.

I'll do anything for you.

"Is there anything in the paper?" he said, as we approached
the end of our silent meal.

Nothing could remove his disappointment.

The doctor could suggest nothing to me. (= The doctor could
not suggest anything to me.)

He looked at me and didn't say anything.

Dirk never concealed anything.

Let me see your pictures. If there's anything I like, I'll buy it.

Note the idiomatic use of something in the following sen-
tences:

e.g. He is something of a hermit. ('В нем есть что-то от отшель-
ника'.)

I hope to see something of you during the holidays. ('Я наде-
юсь видеть вас хоть иногда...')

Не is something in the Foreign Office. ('Он какое-то ответст-
венное лицо в Министерстве иностранных дел.')
Something or other prevented him from coming. ('По той
или иной причине он не смог прийти. Что-то помешало
ему прийти.')

It's something like two miles to the lake. (=approximately)
I'll whistle the tune for you. It goes something like this.
('приблизительно вот так')

All the compound indefinite pronouns may be modified by ad-
jectives which are generally placed in post-position to their head-
words.

e.g. You should do something sensible about it at last.
Somebody important has arrived, I'm sure.
I want someone reliable to do this work.
I thought he was going to tell me something painful.
I thought I'd come and see if they had anything new.

§ 23. The pronoun one in all of its uses refers exclusively to
persons or things that are countable.


The pronoun one is used as a noun pronoun and as an adjec-
tive pronoun.

As a noun pronoun, it can have the plural form ones and the
form of the genitive case one's. Besides, as has been said above
(see § 8 above), the reflexive pronoun oneself is formed from it.

As an adjective pronoun one is invariable.

One has many various uses in English.

1) It is used to stand for 'people' or 'I or any person in my po-
sition'. In other words, it refers to nobody in particular.

e.g. One can*t be too careful in matters like this.

He was very young, not more than twenty-three or four, as

indeed one could see at a glance.
The sea was so smooth, so luminous that when one stared at

it for long one could no longer distinguish, for a moment

or two, the shape of things.
His sincerity excited one's sympathy.
It's not what I should have chosen for my last years, but one

no longer makes one's life when one is old. Life is made

for one.

Note. Care should be taken not to use one too often in the sentence because it
would make the sentence stylistically clumsy (see the last example above).

For example, the sentence When one is given one's choice of courses of action,
any of which would be to
one's disadvantage, one often has difficulty in deciding
what
one ought to do should be better expressed in either of the following ways:

a) When someone is given his choice of courses of action, any of which would be
to his disadvantage, he often has difficulty in deciding what he ought to do.

b) When you are given your choice of courses of action, any of which would be to
your disadvantage, you often have difficulty in deciding what you ought to do.

Note that you in the last sentence above applies to no particular person and is
used with indefinite meaning in which it is more common than the pronoun one.
(See also "Pronouns", § 3.)

2) One may have the meaning of 'a person'.

e.g. He is not one to be easily frightened.
He is not one to fall for her charms.
One who paints ought to know a lot about perspective.
There was a look in his eyes of one used to risking his life.
Do you want to be the one to spoil all that?

3) One is often used for contrast with other, in which case it
preserves some of its numerical meaning.


e.g. The brothers are so alike that I sometimes cannot tell one

from the other.
By the way, here are the two duplicate keys to the gate —

I'll take one, the other key you'd better keep yourself.
She smiled as one intellectual to another.
According to Jim, life was one damn thing after another.

4) One, in combination with nouns denoting time, is used to
express some vague time.

e.g. One day he'll understand his mistake.
I'll speak to him one of these days.
One Friday night my mother and father talked for a long

time alone.
One summer evening I went for a stroll in the park.

5) One is used with the meaning of 'only' or 'single'.

e.g. Your father is the one man who can help you now.
This is the one thing we can feel certain about.
This is the one way to do it.
No one man can do it.

6) Last but not least, one is used as a prop-word, i.e. as a sub-
stitute for a previously mentioned noun. It helps to avoid the rep-
etition of the same noun.

e.g. Trams were passing us, but my father was not inclined to

take one.
Will you show me your pictures? I might feel like buying one.

If the prop-word one is preceded by an adjective, an article
must be used with it.

e.g. No, that's not their car. Theirs is a blue one.

The new vicar was less cultivated than the old one.

The prop-word one can be used in the plural.

e.g. I prefer red roses to white ones.

"Which biscuits would you like?" "The ones with chocolate
on them."

The prop-word one (ones) may also be used in combination with
other pronouns, such as this (these), that (those), which, each, ev-
ery
and other as well as ordinal numerals (e.g. first, second, etc.).


e.g. If you will take this chair, I'll take that one.

I've never seen such big tulips as these ones.

Here are some books for you to read. Which one would you
choose?

There were several houses in the street, each one more ex-
pensive than the other.

If you don't like this magazine, take another one.

My house is the first one on the left.

There are certain restrictions on the use of the prop-word one:

a) one is not used after own,

e.g. I won't go by your car. I'll use my own.

b) one is normally not used after a superlative or comparative
adjective preceded by the definite article,

e.g. The English climate is often said to be the most unpre-
dictable in the world.

Of all the runners my brother was the swiftest.
Of the two armchairs I chose the harder.

Note. Note that the prop-word one is possible when most is used in the mean-
ing of 'very', 'extremely'.

e.g. His collection of stamps is a most valuable one.

c) one is not used after cardinal numerals,
e.g. I have only one friend but you have two.

d) one is to be avoided in formal or scientific English.
Note the idiomatic uses of one in the following sentences:

e.g. He was a man that was liked by one and all. (= by everybody)

The sky was gently turning dark and the men began to de-
part one after the other. (= in succession, not together)

Would you like me to bring them one by one, sir? (= singly,
one at a time, not together)

No, I won't go with you. For one thing, I am very busy at
the moment. (= for one reason)

The little ones always know a good man from a bad one.
(= children)

It isn't the pretty ones that make good wives and mothers.
(= pretty girls)


§ 24. The pronoun none is a noun pronoun. It is negative in
meaning indicating not one or not any and can be used of persons
(cf. no one) as well as of things, countable and uncountable (cf.
nothing). The verb following it may be singular or plural, accord-
ing to the sense required.

e.g. None of us knows where he is going to work.
None of them are any use to me.
None of them really know how ill she is.
We discovered that none of his promises was kept.
He asked them for advice. None was given.
I wanted some more coffee but none was left.

Note. The difference between none and the negatives no one (nobody) and noth-
ing
is easily brought out with the help of questions. No one (nobody) is used in an-
swer to a who-question.

e.g. "Whoare you speaking to?" "No one (nobody)"

Nothing is used in answer to a what-question,
e.g. "Whatare you doing there?" "Nothing"

But none is used in answer to a how many- or how much-question.

e.g. "How many fish did you catch?" "None"

"How muchpetrol is there in the car?" "None"
"How muchprogress did he make?" "None"

§ 25. The pronoun all can be used as a noun pronoun and as
an adjective pronoun.

All used as a noun pronoun is singular when it means 'every-
thing', 'the whole of a thing'.

e.g. All's well that ends well, (proverb)

I don't find any change here, all looks as it always did.

He has lost all.
Some day his pictures will be worth more than all you have

in your shop.

All used as a noun pronoun is plural when it means 'eve-
rybody', 'the total number of persons, animals or things.'

e.g. All are welcome.

All agree that he has behaved splendidly.


All of us think so.

He made a few suggestions. All of them were acceptable.

When all is used as an adjective pronoun, the verb may be sin-
gular or plural depending on the noun modified by all.

e.g. All the money was spent.

All that business fills me with disgust.

All the trunks are packed ready to go.

All students should register before October 1st.

There are a few peculiarities in the use of all:
1) When all is followed by a noun, there is no preposition be-
tween them.1
e.g. He worked hard all time he was here.

I don't like to speak before all these people.
All my friends were happy to hear the news.
All boys prefer playing games to going to school.

However, when all is followed by a personal pronoun, the
preposition of must be used.

e.g. He has written three novels and all of them were best sellers.
All of us were disappointed by him.

Note. In American English nouns following all are often joined to it, like per-
sonal pronouns, with the help of the preposition of.

e.g. Allof ourstudents have registered.
Allof these books are mine.

2) Note the possible place of all with nouns (a) and personal
pronouns (b) used as the subject of the sentence.

e.g. a) All the students found the lectures helpful.
The students all found the lectures helpful,
b) All of them found the lectures helpful.
They all found the lectures helpful.

3) All may be followed by an appositive clause which is usually
introduced by the conjunction that or asyndetically.

e.g. Meeting George was the first piece of pure chance that affect-
ed all (that) I did later.

1 For the use or absence of the definite article after all see "Articles", §10, Note.


 

She listened to all (that) he said with a quiet smile on her lips.
Note the following idiomatic uses of all:
e.g. He is all in. (= He is completely exhausted.)
It was all my fault. (= entirely)
The money is all gone. (= completely)
He was all covered with mud. (= wholly)
I did not understand it at all. (= in the least degree)
After all, people laughed at Manet, though everyone now
knows he was a great painter.
I warn you, once and for all, that this foolishness must stop.
(= for the last and only time)

§ 26. The pronoun every is used only as an adjective pronoun.
It modifies singular countable nouns when there are more than
two objects of the same description.

e.g. After the gale every flower in the garden was broken.

Every head turned to look at them as they progressed slowly
up the aisle.

He knew by heart every word in her letter.

Every morning the landlady greeted him with the same ques-
tion, "Had a good sleep, dear?"

Every time I ring you up, I find you engaged.

He had every reason to believe that he was right.

Note the idiomatic uses of every in the following sentences:

e.g. Every other house in the street was damaged in an air-raid.

(= every second, fourth, sixth, etc. house; about half the

houses)

He comes here every three days. (= every third day)
They had a rest every few miles. (= They had a rest every

time they had walked a few miles.)

Every is a synonym of all when the latter is used attributive-
ly. The use of every is, however, more restricted than that of all
because it cannot be used with uncountable nouns.

With countable nouns, their use appears to be parallel.

e.g. The explosion broke all the windows in the street.
The explosion broke every window in the street.


Yet, in addition to the fact that every precedes singular nouns
and all is associated with plural nouns, there is a difference in
meaning. The distinction between all and every is that in a sen-
tence like All the boys were present we consider the boys in a
mass; in the sentence Every boy was present we are thinking of
the many individual boys that make up the mass. Nevertheless it
is more usual to use every instead of all where possible.

§ 27. There are the following compound pronouns formed with
every; everyone — everybody — everything.

All of them are used as noun pronouns and take a singular
verb. Everyone and everybody can be used only of persons.

e.g. Everyone's got a right to their own opinion.

She took the initiative and herself spoke to everyone she knew.
"Everybody's afraid, aren't they?" he said looking at the peo-
ple around.

Both everyone and everybody can have the form of the gen-
itive case,
e.g. He's sure of everyone's consent.

The difference in meaning between everyone and everybody is
the same as between someone and somebody (see § 22 above). Only
everyone can be followed by an of-phrase.

e.g. He is at once physician, surgeon and healer of the serious
illnesses which threaten everyone of us in England today.

Note. The compounds with one are distinct from such groups as every one, any
one
and some one where one is numerical and refers back to a countable noun that oc
curs in the sentence or the context. These groups are often followed by of-phrases.
e.g. I have three sisters. Every oneof themis beautiful.

The book opened to them new worlds, and every one of them was glorious.

But he knew that it would not take much for every one of themto start
talking freely.

Give me one of those books — any onewill do.

Everything can be used only of things and also takes a sin-
gular verb but it cannot have the genitive case form,
e.g. No wonder everything goes wrong in this house.

I'll tell you everything tonight.

One can't have everything.


§ 28. The pronoun each is used as a noun pronoun and as an
adjective pronoun. In the former case it is singular in meaning
and takes a singular verb (a). In the latter case it is associated
with a singular countable noun and can be used when there are at

least two objects of the same description (b).
e.g. a) I told them what each was to do in case of an emergency,
b) For years I thought I remembered each detail of that day.
I have met him each time he has come to London.
We examined each specimen minutely.
He gave each boy a present.

Each as an adjective pronoun is a synonym of every but there
is some difference in meaning between them. Every tends to gath-
| er the separate items into a whole; each focuses attention on them
individually and so tends to disperse the unity, it takes the mem-
bers of a definite group one by one, without adding them up. In
other words, every refers to a number of individuals or things,
considered as a group; each refers to a number of individuals or
things, considered separately.

e.g. Every orange in the crate was wrapped in tissue paper. He care-
fully unwrapped each orange before putting it on the scales.

As a result of its specific meaning, each may be followed by
an of-phrase, which is not possible in the case of every.

e.g. Eachof the men signed his name as he came in.
1'11send each of you some seeds in the autumn.
Each of theten houses in the row had a garden.

§ 29. The pronoun other can be used as an adjective pronoun
and as a noun pronoun.

As an adjective pronoun, it is invariable. When it is preceded by
the indefinite article (an), they are written as one word another.

"The other + a singular noun" means 'the second of the two.'

e.g. The insurance offices were on the other side of the street.

He pulled on the other glove and said that, though it was

late, he would run along to his office.

I spent half my time teaching law and the other halfin Lon-
don as a consultant to a big firm.


"Another + a singular noun" means 'an additional one', 'a dif-
ferent one'.

e.g. Young Martin had been sent on another errand to the grocer.
Richard stayed for another moment, shifting from one foot

to the other.

We went into another room.
I must find myself another job.

"The other +a plural noun" means 'the rest', 'the remaining',
e.g. My mother said: "I don't want my boy to suffer in any way

at the side of the other boys in the form."
When I returned home I found my wife talking to our neigh-
bour. The other guests had gone.

"Other + a plural noun" means 'additional', 'different', 're-
maining' .
e.g. I have no other friends but you.

"We can do as well as other people," my aunt said.

He said that he would ring Charles up as soon as he got

home. Then he talked of other things all the way.
Some children like milk chocolate, other children prefer plain

chocolate.

As a noun pronoun, other has the plural form others and the
genitive case forms other's and others'.

Other used as a noun pronoun has the same meanings as when
it is used as an adjective pronoun (see above),
e.g. Simon set one foot slightly in front of the other, ready to

fight.
It was only another of her many disappointments.

If that cigar is too strong, try another.

That may be your opinion, but the others think differently. I

have talked to them.
All superiors were important to Mr Vesey, though some were

more important than others.
One of his daughters is married to a man who lives by his

pen. The other's husband is a doctor.
Note the idiomatic uses of other in the following sentences:


e.g. I don't want him to be other than he is.(= I don't want him

to be different.)
She could invent no way of squeezing another nine guineas

out of her budget. (= nine guineas more)
Another fifty yards farther on you can see Marcello's boat.

(= fifty yards more)

"I saw your wife the other day," I said. (= a few days ago)
And somehow or other he had acquired a wide acquaintance

with the less known parts of the city. (= in some way that

cannot be accounted for)
Some idiot or other has been throwing stones at the dog.

§ 30. The pronoun either and its negative counterpart neither
are used as noun pronouns and as adjective pronouns. When used
as nouns, they take a singular verb. Either usually means 'one or
the other of two'.

e.g. Either of these machines is suitable for the work you want

done.
"Which of the two rooms would you like, sir?" "Oh, either. I

don't care."

The news did not shock either of them.
My wife and I watched him make the parcel but he took no

notice of either of us.

Have you seen either of your parents today?
There is a train at 11.30 and one at 12.05. Either train will

get you to Oxford in time for the meeting.

In the above meaning either is mostly used as a noun pronoun,
though occasionally it occurs in the function of an attribute (see
the last example above).

Either may also mean 'each of two'. In this meaning it is used
as an adjective pronoun and mostly found in literary English.

e.g. He came down the road with a girl on either arm.
There was a lamp at either end of the street.
The houses on either side were tall and big.

Neither means 'not the one nor the other'.

e.g. That evening my mother spoke with such quiet anger that
Aunt Milly was intimidated. After that neither of them
was ever willing to take up the subject.


The first time we met after the ball, neither of us said a
word that was not trivial.

My friend and I came to the end of our last walk. "We shall
meet again," she said. "If not next year, then some other
time." Neither of us believed it.

You can keep your astonishment and your mortification for
yourself. I feel neither.

I have travelled by both trains and neither train had a res-
taurant car.

Neither brother has been abroad.

§ 31. The pronoun both is used as a noun pronoun and as an
adjective pronoun. It is plural in meaning and applied only to two
persons or things.

e.g. Two men were injured in the accident. Both are now recover-
ing in hospital.
I ordered only one of the two books, but now I think I'll take

both.

Dirk went up to her, and took both her hands.
I made plans for the future that ignored both my parents

and my studies.
I invited one of the brothers but both of them came.

Note the possible place of both in the sentence.

e.g. Both (the) men were interested in the job.
Both these children are mine.
These children are both mine.
Both my children are boys.

Both of them agreed that the matter had better be dropped.
They both accepted the invitation.
They have both been invited.

§ 32. The pronouns much and many are used as noun pro-
nouns and as adjective pronouns.

Much means 'a large amount'. As a noun pronoun, it takes a
singular verb. As an adjective pronoun, it modifies only uncount-
able nouns,
e.g. Much of his life was lived inside himself.

"I don't suppose you had much to eat all day," said my mother.


You haven't much time if you want to catch the train.
I hope you haven't brought much luggage.

Many means 'a large number'. As a noun pronoun, it takes a
plural verb. As an adjective pronoun, it modifies only countable
nouns in the plural.

e.g. There were lots of people on the beach. Many of them were

holiday- makers.
"I'm marking the children's compositions." "Have you many

left?"

I haven't many friends now.
You haven't made many mistakes this time.

There is a strong tendency in present-day English to use much
and many, particularly when they function as adjective pronouns,
only in interrogative and negative sentences and in object clauses
introduced by if or whether.

e.g. I had not very much advice to give him.

I did not meet many English people who could speak foreign

languages.

Did you have much rain on your holidays?
Do you know many people in London?
I doubt whether there'll be much time for seeing the sights.

The train leaves at six o'clock.
I wonder if many people will come to the party.

Thus He has much time, although apparently correct gram-
matically, is hardly ever seen or heard in present-day English. A
lot of, lots of, plenty of, a great deal of, a large number of, a
good many, a great many
and the like replace much and many in
affirmative sentences.

e.g. There is a lot of work to do.

I know plenty of boys in other schools had achieved the same
results as I had.

She knows lots of girls who go out dancing every Saturday.

He has done a great deal of research on the subject.

A large number of people were gathered at the cafe.

My mother's family had been different in a good many ways

from my father's.
A great many mistakes have been made by nearly everybody.


Much and many can be used in affirmative sentences in the

following cases:

a) when they are used as the subject of the sentence, or modify it,

e.g. Muchdepends on what answer he will give.
Muchof what he says is true.
Manythink that the situation will improve.
Muchtime would be saved if you planned your work properly.
Manypeople like to spend their spare time working in their
gardens.

b) when much and many are modified by adverbs of degree,
e.g. so, too, as and how,

e.g. No, I won't do it. It's too muchtrouble.

There are too manymistakes in your exercises.
You can have as muchfruit as you want.

c) when much is used alone as a noun pronoun in the function
of an object,

e.g. My mother meant muchto me.

I would give muchto know what he is thinking now.

Note. Occasionally we find such synonymous expressions of much and many as
a world of, heaps of, oceans of and the like. They are used in colloquial English for
emphasis,
e.g. I have heaps of news. When can we talk?

Much and many change for degrees of comparison. They are
more and most.

e.g. He made moreprogress than I had expected.

I found moreletters lying on his table that morning.

He knew moreabout me than I thought.

Mostwork was done in my father's office.

Mostpeople hold the same opinion as you do.

The mostI can do for you is to give you a letter of recommendation.

Mostof his money came from selling his landscapes.

Mostof the delegates voted against the proposal.

Mostof his relatives lived in the country.

§ 33, The pronouns little and few are used as noun pronouns
and as adjective pronouns.


Little means 'a small amount'. As a noun pronoun, it takes a
singular verb. As an adjective pronoun, it is used with uncount-
able nouns.

e.g. Littlewas known of his life when he was alive.

My story was a record of hard work and littleadventure.

Few means 'a small number'. As a noun pronoun, it takes a
plural verb. As an adjective pronoun, it is used with countable
nouns in the plural.

e.g. Yet fewhave been found to deny the man's greatness.
Very fewdecisions were ever taken in that department.

Both little and few have a negative implication — they mean
'not enough'.

e.g. The shipwrecked sailors had no food and littlewater.
Fewpeople would agree with you.

A little and a few, which are to be treated as set phrases, have
a positive meaning. They mean 'some though not much (many)'.

e.g. He earns a littlemoney and can live quite comfortably on it.
I suggested that he should get a few grapes and some bread.

Compare:

e.g. I know littleabout painting. (= almost nothing)
I know a littleabout painting. (= something)
There is littlechange in his appearance. (= almost no change)
There is a littlechange in his appearance. (== some change)
Fewbirds can be seen in that place. (= almost none)
A fewbirds can be seen in that place. (= some birds)
He has fewfriends and lives a lonely life. (= almost none)
He has a fewfriends who call to see him quite frequently.
(= some friends)

Little and few change for degrees of comparison. Their forms are:
little — less — least
few — fewer — fewest

e.g. Please make less noise.

George gives me the leasttrouble.

There were fewerpeople in the bus today.

Who has made the fewest mistakes?


Reciprocal Pronouns

§ 34. There are two reciprocal pronouns in English: each other
and one another. They show that something is done mutually.
Both pronouns are mainly used in the function of an object (di-
rect, indirect or prepositional) in the sentence,
e.g. I knew that my two aunts bitterly disliked each other.

They had come to understand one another, Руке and he,

without anything being said.
But he was a little puzzled by the behaviour of Blanche and

Strickland towards one another.

As is seen from the above examples, both each other and one
another
can be used when speaking of two persons. However,
when more than two persons are meant, only one another is usu-
ally used.

e.g. When he entered the cafe he saw the people wink at one an-
other.

Each other and one another can be used in the genitive case,
e.g. They had not met so long that they had forgotten each oth-
er's names.

In their letters they made it a rule to inquire after one an-
other's relatives.

Interrogative Pronouns

§ 35. The interrogative pronouns are: who (whom), whose,
what, which, how much
and how many. They are all used in form-
ing questions.

§ 36. The pronoun who asks about persons. It does not dis-
tinguish gender or number. It may be masculine or feminine, sin-
gular or plural in meaning. Who is the nominative case and it is
mainly used as the subject of the sentence.

e.g. Who is coming with me?

Who are the people over there?

The objective case of who is whom which is used as an object
in the sentence. It may be a direct (a) or prepositional object (b).


e.g. a) Whom did you see there?

Whom does he suspect?
b) To whom did you give the message?
Of whom are you thinking?
By whom was it done?

But whom is the literary form and is preferred in writing. In
conversation it is replaced by who. When who happens to be used
as a prepositional object, the preposition is placed at the end of
the sentence.

e.g. Who did you see there?
Who does he suspect?
Who did you give the message to?
Who are you thinking of?
Who was it done by?

Note the idiomatic uses of who in the following sentences:

e.g. It was so dark that I couldn't tell who's who. (= could not

tell one person from the other)

You'll find his name in Who's Who. (= a reference book on
contemporary outstanding people)

§ 37. The pronoun whose is a possessive interrogative pro-
noun. It is used as an adjective pronoun, mostly in the function
of an attribute, though occasionally it occurs as a predicative too.

e.g. Whose room is it going to be?
Whose is the room going to be?

In whose car do you prefer to go? (Whose car do you prefer

to go in?)
§ 38. The pronoun what may be used as a noun pronoun and
as an adjective pronoun.

When it serves as a noun, it asks after things. It may be sin-
gular or plural in meaning. It may be used as the subject, a pred-
icative or an object in the sentence. It has no case forms.

e.g. What's this?
What are those strange objects in the distance?
What is his telephone number?


What is your name?
What do you mean?
About what are you going to ask him?

It should be noted that in the case of a prepositional object it
is more usual to place the preposition at the end of the sentence
in present-day English.

e.g. What are you going to ask him about?
What are you laughing at?

Special attention should be paid to the use of what asking
about a person's profession,
e.g. "What is the man your father is talking to?" "He is a lawyer."

Compare it with a whо-question asking about the identity of a
person.

e.g. "Who is the man your father is talking to?" "He is Mr Clap-
perton, our new neighbour."

What can also be used in asking about actions,
e.g. "What are you doing?" "I'm cleaning the car."

Note the idiomatic uses of what in the following sentences:
e.g. "What is he like?" "He is tall, dark and handsome." ('Как он

ВЫГЛЯДИТ?')

"What is he like as a pianist?" "Oh, he is not very good.
('Что он собой представляет как...?')

Ben suddenly looked at his watch. "What about your den-
tist?" he asked, ('А как же твой врач?')

What about a cigarette? ('Хочешь сигарету?')

What about something to eat? ('Может поедим чего-ни-
будь?')

What of it? ('Ну и что из этого?')

So what? ('Ну и что?')

He's a clever fellow, he knows what's what, ('что хорошо,
что плохо'; 'что к чему')

When what is used as an adjective pronoun it is also in-
variable and serves as an attribute to nouns denoting both persons
and things.


e.g. What languages do you know?
What play did you see last?
What man would have done more?
What feelings do such stories excite?
What artists are going to be exhibited this autumn?

To ask after the kind or sort to which a person or thing be-
longs, synonymous set phrases what kind of and what sort of are
used instead of what.

e.g. What kind of man is he? ('Что он за человек?' 'Какой он

человек?')
What sort of chocolate do you like best? ('какой, какого

сорта')

What kind of house have they bought? ('какой')
What sort of proposition do you want to discuss with me?

('какое предложение'; 'что за предложение')

What preceding a noun may also be used at the head of an ex-
clamatory sentence. (This what is sometimes called the exclama-
tory what.)

e.g. What a stupid thing he has said!

What splendid pictures they have in their collection!
What marvellous news he brought!
What fun we had yesterday!

§ 39. The pronoun which is used as a noun pronoun and as an
adjective pronoun. It is used of persons and things and is invari-
able in form. It can have the function of the subject, an object
and an attribute in the sentence.

The use of which is more restricted than that of what because
which is selective — it selects one or more out of a definite num-
ber of persons or things.

e.g. Which will you have, tea or coffee?
Which way shall we go?
Which pen does the cap belong to?
Which author are you more interested in?
Which students have answered all the questions correctly?


As a result of its selective meaning, which is often followed bу
an of-phrase.

e.g. Which of your friends will you invite to the party?
Which of them said that?
Which of his books are you reading now?

Compare the use of what and which in the following sentences:
e.g. What TV programmes do you usually watch? Which of them

is your favorite one?
What examinations are you going to take this term? Which

of them do you find most difficult?
What car have you? Which car is yours?

§ 40. The pronouns how much and how many are used as noun
pronouns and as adjective pronouns.

How much asks about the amount of something and is used of
or with only uncountable nouns.

e.g. How much did you find out?
How much money do you need?

How many asks about the number of persons and things and is
used of or with only countable nouns,
e.g. "There are several people sitting at the fireplace." "How many

can you count?"

How many people took part in the experiment?
How many invitations have been sent out?

§ 41. The interrogative pronouns who, what and which may be
made emphatic by adding ever. Ever here means something like
'on earth', 'in the world'. Depending on the situation, questions
introduced by the emphatic forms in -ever express different emo-
tions, such as surprise, anger, despair, indignation, etc. The use
of the form in -ever is distinctly colloquial,
e.g. Whoever (who ever) can be calling at this time of the night?

Whoever (who ever) heard of such a silly idea?

Whatever (what ever) were you thinking of to suggest such a

plan?
He gets up at five o'clock every morning. What ever for?


Conjunctive Pronouns

§42. The pronouns who {whom), whose, what, which, how
much, how many
and that are used to connect subordinate clauses
with the principal clause. Owing to their auxiliary function they
are called conjunctive pronouns. At the same time they all have
an independent syntactic function in the subordinate clause.

e.g. Do you know who has bought the house? (subject)
He always said exactly what he thought, (object)
I'm surprised to see how much he had done in so short a

time, (object)
I walked past a row of houses whose front doors opened onto

the pavement, (attribute)
You'll never guess what present I want him to give me. (at

tribute)
I had to find out what he was. (predicative)

When conjunctive pronouns are used in the function of a
prepositional object, the preposition is generally placed at the end
of the clause.

e.g. The man who(m) I spoke to is my neighbour.

You are the very person that I have been looking for.
Who it was done by is for us to find out.

Conjunctive pronouns may be used to introduce different
kinds of clauses, except adverbial clauses and appositive clauses,
which are introduced only by conjunctions.

e.g. What was done cannot be undone, (subject clause)

The question is which of them is going to be appointed presi-
dent of the firm, (predicative clause)

Life in the country isn't what it used to be, you know, (pred-
icative clause)

I don't know whose handwriting it is. (object clause)
I'll surprise you by what I'll do. (prepositional object clause)
He is one of the men whom I can trust, (attributive clause)

§ 43. It is noteworthy that not all the conjunctive pronouns can
be used with all kinds of clauses mentioned above. Thus, subject,
predicative and object clauses can be introduced by the conjunctive


pronouns who (whom), whose, which and how much, how many.
The use of these conjunctive pronouns does not differ from that
of the corresponding interrogative pronouns (see §§ 36-40 above).
That is no longer a conjunctive pronoun when it introduces one of
these clauses, but a mere conjunction because it has no syntactic
function in the subordinate clause.

e.g. That he is going to resign is no secret.
My guess is that he is in love.
I know that he is no fool.

§ 44. Attributive clauses can be introduced by who (whom),
whose, which
and that. The conjunctive pronouns in this case al-
ways refer to some noun (or noun equivalent) in the principal
clause. That is why they are also called relative pronouns. The
noun they refer to is called their antecedent

The relative pronoun who (whom) is used only of persons.

e.g. They were worried about their nephews who were taking part

in the war.
He interviewed several men and engaged one who had been

discharged from the army.
He was a man who meant what he said.
I wish I knew the man who owns that farm.
The hostess continued the introduction, "Here is Mr Swift, a

tutor, and my nephew Maurice, whom he's tutoring."
Meg loved her little brother to whom she had been a second

mother.

The relative pronoun whose may be used of both persons and
things.

e.g. We went one day to the picture-dealer in whose shop my
brother thought he could buy a picture or two.

When it came to literature, young Maurice was the one
whose reading in any way compared with Swift's.

There are newspapers in Great Britain whose pages are large-
ly filled with news of sport and with stories of film-stars,
or accounts of crime and of law-court trials.

The relative pronoun which is used of things.


e.g. She sat down behind the tea tray which the servant had just
brought in.

As I walked up the endless stairs of the house in which
Strickland lived, I confess I was a little excited.

She obtained some opinions which later I realized were en-
tirely sensible.

She had never owned a dress which her girlfriends would con-
sider expensive.

Note. With a collective noun used as the antecedent the relative who is used
when the individuals forming the group are meant, and the relative which when the
group as whole is meant.

e.g. He wanted to interview someone from the team who were now resting.
He wanted to interview someone from the team which was winning.

Which is also used if the antecedent of the attributive clause
is the whole of the principal clause.

e.g. That day she took her share of the meal, which nowadays she

rarely did.

He invited us to dinner, which was very kind of him.
The decision was postponed, which was exactly what he wanted.<




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