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Крылова И. П., Гордон Е. М.



Английского

Языка

Рекомендовано Министерством
общего и профессионального
образования Российской Федерации
в качестве учебника для студентов
институтов и факультетов
иностранных языков

Москва
2003


УДК 802.0(075.8)
ББК 81.2 Англ-2
К 85

ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ


Крылова И. П., Гордон Е. М.

К85Грамматика современного английского языка: Учебник
для ин-тов и фак. иностр. яз. — 9-е изд. — М.: Книжный дом
«Университет»: Высшая школа, 2003. — 448 с. — На англ. яз.

ISBN 5-8013-0168-2 (Книжный дом «Университет»)

ISBN 5-06-004669-9 (Высшая школа)

Учебник предназначен для студентов тех институтов и факультетов
иностранных языков, в которых курс практической грамматики читается
на английском языке. Учебник содержит развернутое описание частей
речи, краткие сведения о структуре предложения. Последовательно про-
водится стиллистическая дифференциация грамматических явлений.

Тщательный подбор иллюстративных примеров, которые содержат об-
щеупотребительную лексику, но вместе с тем являются образцами хоро-
шего литературного языка, обеспечивают повышение общего уровня вла-
дения языком.

Рекомендуется использовать в комплекте со «Сборником упражнений
по грамматике английского языка» И. П. Крыловой.

УДК 802.0(075.8)
ББК 81.2 Англ-2

ISBN 5-8013-0168-2

(Книжный дом «Университет»)
ISBN 5-06-004669-9

(Высшая школа) © И. П. Крылова, Е. М. Гордон,2003


"A Grammar of Present-Day English" — учебник, предназначенный
для студентов институтов иностранных языков, а также факультетов
иностранных языков педагогических институтов и филологических фа-
культетов университетов. Это означает, что учебник рассчитан на сту-
дентов, овладевших грамматическим материалом, предусмотренным
программой средней школы, т. е. знакомых с основными понятиями
морфологии и синтаксиса. Учебник представляет собой практический
курс грамматики английского языка. Практическая направленность
учебника определяет принципы, положенные в его основу:

1. Авторы не считают возможным в практическом курсе грамма-
тики давать теоретическое обоснование своей точке зрения и ограничи-
ваются лишь практическими выводами.

2. В учебнике описываются грамматические нормы английского
языка, иными словами, объясняются типичные явления, которые и
должны усваиваться студентами. В ряде случаев упоминаются также и
отклонения от норм, если они необходимы студентам для правильного
понимания читаемой литературы, но при этом всегда делается специ-
альная оговорка. Редкие отклонения от норм вообще не включены в
учебник.

3. Авторы ставят перед собой задачу не только описать граммати-
ческие явления современного английского языка, но также предста-
вить их так, чтобы предотвратить типичные ошибки.

4. Один из ведущих принципов, положенных в основу учебника,
заключается в том, что студенты должны изучать хорошие образцы
английского языка. Это относится как к формулированию правил, так
и к примерам, которые их иллюстрируют. Поэтому особое внимание
уделялось подбору иллюстративного материала. Авторы стремились к
тому, чтобы примеры содержали употребительную лексику и одновре-
менно оставались бы хорошими образцами английского языка и чтобы
учебник, таким образом, помогал студентам совершенствовать их зна-
ния. Следует заметить, что количество примеров варьируется в учебнике
в зависимости от употребительности того или иного грамматического
явления и от объема раздела, который он иллюстрирует.

Кроме того, в учебник включены наиболее употребительные устой-
чивые сочетания (set phrases) и готовые фразы (stereotyped phrases),
возникшие на основе описанных грамматических моделей.


5. В учебнике проводится стилистическая дифференциация грам-
матических явлений, в частности особая оговорка делается в отноше-
нии явлений, типичных только для книжной речи или носящих сугубо
разговорный характер. Грамматические модели, которые в стилистиче-
ском отношении являются нейтральными, в специальных пояснениях,
разумеется, не нуждаются.

В связи с этим авторы рекомендуют преподавателям привлечь осо-
бое внимание студентов к правильному стилистическому исполь-
зованию грамматических моделей.

6. В учебнике не проводится систематического сопоставления грам-
матических явлений английского языка с соответствующими яв-
лениями в русском языке. Авторы, однако, прибегают к сравнениям с
русским языком там, где это необходимо для понимания того или ино-
го явления в английском языке.

Переводы на русский язык отдельных предложений, оборотов, тер-
минов даются лишь там, где возникает опасение, что английский мате-
риал будет труден для понимания.

Авторы считают, что для практических целей овладения англий-
ской грамматикой достаточно описания частей речи со всеми их семан-
тическими, морфологическими и синтаксическими особенностями.

В учебнике отражены следующие признаки частей речи: 1) их се-
мантика, 2) грамматические категории (для изменяемых частей речи),
3) их функции в предложении. Эти критерии, служащие для выделе-
ния частей речи в языке, положены в основу описания каждой отдель-
ной части речи, и этот принцип проводится в учебнике систематиче-
ски.

Хотя словообразование и сочетаемость с другими частями речи так-
же являются существенными критериями выделения частей речи в
языке, авторы не нашли нужным включать эти разделы в учебник. В
институтах и на факультетах иностранных языков словообразование
обычно входит в курс лексикологии, и включение его в грамматику
создало бы ненужное дублирование курсов.

Что касается сочетаемости частей речи, то она фактически отраже-
на в учебнике полностью при описании их синтаксических функций в
предложении, и для практического овладения материалом выделение
ее в особый раздел представляется излишним.

Согласно общепризнанной точке зрения, важнейшей частью речи
является глагол, который представляет собой ядро предложения. В
практическом плане именно употребление глагольных форм представ-
ляет для изучающих английский язык наибольшие трудности. Поэто-
му глаголу в учебнике уделяется самое значительное место, и именно с
глагола начинается рассмотрение всех частей речи.


Другим чрезвычайно важным в практическом отношении разделом
грамматики является употребление артиклей. Этой теме в учебнике
также отводится значительное место.

Стремясь к тому, чтобы учебник максимально способствовал имен-
но практическому овладению грамматикой, авторы по-новому освеща-
ют некоторые грамматические явления или вносят дополнения и уточ-
нения к традиционным объяснениям.

Это относится, в первую очередь, к разделам, посвященным глаго-
лу. В учебнике вводится понятие структурной и лексической обуслов-
ленности употребления некоторых глагольных форм (см. "Verbs", §8),
и преподавателям следует уделять этому вопросу особое внимание.
Важную роль в учебнике играет выделение структурных моделей, ти-
пичных для употребления некоторых глагольных форм. По-новому ос-
вещается употребление формы Present Perfect и форм, служащих для
отнесения действия к будущему. Введены дополнительные объяснения
к употреблению форм Past Continuous, Past Perfect, Present Perfect
Continuous и Past Perfect Continuous, а также к правилам согласования
времен и употребления страдательного залога. По возможности просто,
без излишней терминологической перегруженности, трактуются формы
выражения нереальности, Они тесно связаны с употреблением модаль-
ных глаголов, объяснение которых предшествует описанию форм нере-
альности. Изменения внесены также в описание неличных форм глагола:
их специфика выявляется лишь при сопоставлении с предикативными
формами, и этому вопросу уделяется много внимания. Детально описы-
вается значение простой формы, объясняются причины относительно
редкого употребления аналитических форм. Внесены изменения и в
описание функций неличных форм глагола в предложении. Наиболее
существенное изменение касается герундия и причастия I, которые по
традиции обычно рассматриваются как две различные формы, хотя
многие грамматисты указывают, что они фактически не разграничи-
мы. В предлагаемом учебнике они трактуются, вслед за некоторыми
лингвистами, как единая форма — the ing-form, способная выполнять
в предложении, подобно инфинитиву, самые разнообразные функции.
Для практического овладения материалом такая интерпретация, как
показывает опыт, оказывается более эффективной. Авторы рекоменду-
ют изучать употребление инфинитива и инговой формы параллельно по
функциям. Например, изучая инфинитив в функции подлежащего, це-
лесообразно одновременно читать материал об инговой форме в той же
функции, а также параграфы, в которых эти две функции сравнивают-
ся (§§ 181, 209 и 235). Затем следует переходить к другой функции. На
этой сравнительной основе построены упражнения в «Сборнике упраж-
нений по грамматике английского языка» И. П. Крыловой. Вопрос раз-


граничения герундия и причастия I представляет интерес скорее для
изучающих курс теоретической грамматики английского языка.

По-новому освещается в учебнике также употребление артиклей.

Раздел «Краткие сведения о структуре предложения» не претендует
на полное описание синтаксической структуры английского языка, а
является скорее справочным материалом, которым следует пользо-
ваться в том случае, если, работая над основными главами, студенты
сталкиваются с трудностями в определении синтаксических функций
тех или иных классов слов. Кроме того, в учебнике используются не
совсем традиционные названия некоторых синтаксических функций,
объяснение которым также можно найти в этом разделе.

В учебнике имеется приложение, которое содержит список не-
правильных глаголов и предметный указатель.

Автор


PARTS OF SPEECH IN ENGLISH

The words of every language fall into classes which are called
parts of speech.Each part of speech has characteristics of its
own. Parts of speech differ from each other in meaning, form
and function.

Different parts of speech have different lexical meanings. For
example, verbs are words denoting processes (to work, to live);
nouns are names of objects (table, boy); adjectives are words ex-
pressing characteristics (good, bad), etc.

Some parts of speech have different grammatical categories,
e.g. verbs have the categories of mood, tense, aspect, phase, voice,
person and number; nouns have the categories of number and case;
adjectives have degrees of comparison, etc.

Other parts of speech are invariable, they have only one form.
Here belong such parts of speech as prepositions and conjunctions.

Parts of speech also differ from each other in their syntactic
functions.
For example, verbs have the function of the predicate in
the sentence, nouns are often used as the subject or the object of
the sentence, adjectives serve as attributes or predicatives; adverbs
are generally adverbial modifiers, etc.

These characteristic features will be described in detail when
each part of speech is considered individually.

In addition, all words may be divided into two main groups:
notionaland structural.

Notional wordshave distinct lexical meanings and perform in-
dependent syntactic functions in the sentence: they serve either as
primary or secondary parts of the sentence. To this group belong
the following parts of speech: verbs, nouns, adjectives, numerals,
pronouns and adverbs.

Structural wordsdiffer from notional words semantically:
their lexical meaning is of a more general character than that of
notional words (e.g. in, and, even). Moreover, they are sometimes
altogether devoid of it (e.g. the articles the and a, the conjunction
that, the preposition of, etc.). Structural words do not perform


any independent syntactic function in the sentence but serve either
to express various relations between words in a sentence (e.g. the
trees
in the garden, Tom and Joe, etc.) or to specify the meaning
of a word (e.g. the book, a book, etc.). The following parts of
speech are to be treated as structural words: articles, prepositions
and conjunctions.

The division of words into notional and structural is connected
with certain difficulties. For example, verbs, which, on the whole,
are to be treated as notional words, include certain words which
serve as structural elements (e.g. modal verbs), some other verbs
may function either as notional words or as structural words (e.g. to
look
is a notional verb in He looked at me and a structural word —
a link-verb — in He looked tired; the verb to have is a notional
verb in I have a car and a structural word — a modal verb — in I
had to do it). Pronouns may be quoted as another example since,
on the one hand, they have, like all notional words, independent
syntactic functions in the sentence but, on the other hand, they
are devoid of distinct lexical meaning.


VERBS

§ 1. According to content, verbs can be described as words de-
noting actions, the term "actions" embracing the meaning of activ-
ity (e.g. to walk, to speak, to play, to study), process (e.g. to sleep,
to wait, to live),
state (e.g. to be, to like, to know), relation (e.g. to
consist, to resemble, to lack)
and the like.

According to form, verbs can be described as words that have
certain grammatical features that are not shared by other parts of
speech, e.g. they have the categories of tense, aspect, voice, etc.

According to function, verbs can be defined as words making
up the predicate of the sentence.

§ 2. Verbs can be classified under different heads.

1) According to their meaning verbs can be divided into two
groups — terminative and durative verbs.

Terminative verbs imply a limit beyond which the action can-
not continue. To put it differently, they have a final aim in view,
e.g. to open, to close, to bring, to recognize, to refuse, to break.
With the verb to open, for example, that means that after opening
the door it is impossible to go on with the action as the door is al-
ready open.

Durative verbs do not imply any such limit, and the action can
go on indefinitely, e.g. to carry, to live, to speak, to know, to sit,
to play.

But as most verbs in English are polysemantic they may be ter-
minative in one meaning and durative in another. For example, to
see
may have the terminative meaning 'увидеть' and the durative
meaning 'видеть'; to know may denote 'знать' and 'узнать- The
meaning of the verb becomes clear from the context. Compare: I
saw him at once and I saw his face quite clearly. As will be seen,
the distinction between terminative and durative verbs is of great
importance as it affects the use of certain tense-aspect-phase
forms.


2) According to their relation to the continuous form, English
verbs fall into two groups: dynamic verbs, i.e. verbs which admit
of the continuous form (a) and stative verbs, i.e. verbs which do
not admit of the continuous form (b).

e.g. a) We were eating dinner when he called.

You'll find Mother in the kitchen. She is making a cake,
b) I understand what you mean.
I don't see him in the crowd.

The distinction between dynamic, and stative verbs is funda-
mental in English grammar, and it is also reflected in a number of
other ways than in the continuous form.

It is normal for verbs to be dynamic, and even the minority that
are almost always stative can be given a dynamic use on occasion.

The following is the list of most commonly used stative verbs:

a) verbs denoting physical perceptions: to hear, to notice, to see;

b) verbs denoting emotions: to adore, to care for, to detest, to
dislike, to hate, to like, to love, to respect;

c) verbs denoting wish: to desire, to want, to wish;

d) verbs denoting mental processes: to admire (= to be of high
opinion), to appreciate, to assume, to believe (= to consider), to con
sider
(= to regard), to doubt, to expect (= to suppose), to feel (= to
consider), to imagine, to know, to mind (= to object), to perceive, to
presume, to recall, to recognize, to recollect, to regard, to remember,
to suppose, to think
(= to consider), to trust, to understand;

e) relational verbs: to apply, to be, to belong, to concern, to con-
sist, to contain, to depend, to deserve, to differ, to equal, to fit, to
have, to hold
(= to contain), to include, to involve, to lack, to mat-
ter, to need, to owe, to own, to possess, to remain, to require, to re-
semble, to result, to signify, to suffice;

f) some other verbs: to agree, to allow, to appear (= to seem),
to astonish, to claim, to consent, to displease, to envy, to fail to
do, to feel
(intr)l, to find, to forbid, to forgive, to intend, to inter-
est, to keep doing, to manage to do, to mean, to object, to please,
to prefer, to prevent, to puzzle, to realize, to refuse, to remind, to
satisfy, to seem, to smell
(intr),1 to sound (intr),1 to succeed, to
suit, to surprise, to taste
(intr),1 to tend, to value.

1 As in: The surface feelsrough. The song soundsnice. The soup tastes (smells)nice.


3) English verbs are also classified according to the type of ob-
ject they take. Verbs that do not require any object are called
intransitive.

e.g. We walked across the fields.

Nobody knew where the old man lived.

Verbs that require some kind of object to complete their mean-
ing are called transitive. The objects transitive verbs take may be
direct (a), indirect (b) or prepositional (c).

e.g. a) I swear I'm telling the truth.

b) His mother never gave him advice.

c) Now let's talk of something sensible.

Polysemantic verbs may be transitive in one meaning and in-
transitive in another.

e.g. I didn't know where to find him as he had changed his address.
I was glad to see that he had not changed at all.
He ran uphill past a block of houses.
She ran the shop quite competently.

§ 3. According to their meaning and function in the sentence
English verbs are classified into notional and structural ones.

Notional verbs always have a lexical meaning of their own
and can have an independent syntactic function in the sentence.

e.g. During the war he lived in London.

When a verb is used as a structural word, it may either pre-
serve or lose its lexical meaning. But even if it has a lexical
meaning of its own, the latter is of a specific character and the
verb cannot have an independent syntactic function in the sen-
tence — it is always closely connected with some other word.
Here belong modal verbs and link-verbs.

A modal verb is always accompanied by an infinitive — to-
gether they form a modal predicate.

e.g. The party is at eight. You must dress suitably for it.
I couldn't do anything under the circumstances.

A link-verb is followed by a predicative; together they form a
nominal predicate.


e.g. He wasa middle-aged man.
It became very hot by noon.

The hotel remained empty all through the winter.
The cottage seemed deserted.

Sometimes a verb is entirely devoid of lexical meaning and is
then called an auxiliary verb. Combined with a notional verb it
serves to build up analytical forms.

e.g. We had arranged to meet in the usual place.
Do you know why he said that?
The young man was sitting at the table alone.

Polysemantic verbs may be notional as well as structural words.

e.g. He is married and has three children (a notional verb used in

the meaning 'to possess').
I had to reconsider my position (a structural word: a modal

verb denoting obligation, part of a modal predicate).
"It has happened now," he said, "so there's nothing to do"

(a structural word: an auxiliary verb which serves to build

up an analytical form).
He looked at me, waiting for the next words ( notional verb

meaning 'glanced').
He lookedquite happy (a structural word: a link-verb meaning

'seemed').

§ 4. English verbs are characterized by a great variety of forms
which can be divided into two main groups according to the func-
tion they perform in the sentence: the finite forms and the non-fi-
nite forms.

The finite forms have the function of the predicate in the sen-
tence and may also be called the predicative forms.

The non-finite or non-predicative forms can have various other
functions; they are used as the predicate of the sentence only by
way of exception. These forms are often called the verbals (see
"Verbs", §§ 163-254).

The finite forms of the verb have the following grammatical
categories:

1) Person and Number. These categories of the verb serve to
show the connection between the subject and the predicate of the


sentence — the subject agrees with the predicate in person and
number. We find three persons (the first, the second, and the
third ) and two numbers (the singular and the plural) in finite
verbs (see the formation of finite forms, "Verbs", §§ 9, 11, 15, 17,
22, 25, 29, 33, 38, 40, 43, 45).

2) Tense, Aspect and Phase (see "Verbs", § 7).

3) Voice (see "Verbs", §§ 61-63).

4) Mood (see "Verbs", §§ 122-125).

§ 5. The forms that serve to express the above mentioned
grammatical categories may be built up in different ways.

We find three basic forms that serve as a foundation for build-
ing up all the other forms of the English verb. These forms are:
1) the plain verb stem which is also often referred to as the infini-
tive without the particle to, 2) the Past Indefinite, and 3) the par-
ticiple.

According to the way of forming the Past Indefinite and the
participle, all verbs can be divided into two classes: regular and ir-
regular verbs.

With regular verbs, the Past Indefinite and the participle are
formed by adding the suffix -ed. It is pronounced [d] after vowels
and voiced consonants (e.g. played, answered, opened, closed), [t]
after voiceless consonants (e.g. looked, passed), and [id] after
verbs ending in [t] or [d] (e.g. wanted, wasted, ended, landed).

In writing the following spelling rules should be observed:

1) Verbs ending in -y preceded by a consonant change the -y
into -led (e.g. study — studied, envy — envied). But if the -y is
preceded by a vowel, it remains unchanged (e.g. play — played,
stay — stayed).

2) A final consonant is doubled if it is preceded by a short
stressed vowel or if a verb ends in a stressed -er (-ur) (e.g. stop
stopped, admit — admitted, occur — occurred, prefer — pre-
ferred).
But if the preceding vowel is long or unstressed, the final
consonant remains single (e.g. limit — limited, perform — per-
formed, conquer — conquered, appear — appeared).

3) A final -l is always doubled in British English (e.g. trav-
el — travelled, quarrel — quarrelled).

All other verbs should be regarded as irregular in modern En-
glish. They are a miscellaneous group comprising various patterns


(e.g. sing — sang — sung, write — wrote — written, send
sent — sent, teach — taught — taught, etc.)- Some verbs have a
regular form by the side of an irregular one (e.g. learn — learnt
learnt and also learn — learned — learned). A number of
verbs remain unchanged (e.g. cut — cut — cut, hit — hit — hit).
Two verbs take their forms from different roots and are called
suppletive systems. They are the verbs to be and to go. (For a
complete list of irregular verbs see Appendix.)

§ 6. The forms of the verb which are built up with the help of
the above described basic forms may be of two different kinds —
synthetic or analytical.

Synthetic forms are built up by a change in the word itself: by
means of suffixes (e.g. I work, he works, we worked), by means of
vowel change (e.g. I find, I found), and sometimes by combining
both means (e.g. I think, I thought).

Analytical forms consist of two components, e.g. He has
worked hard. The first component is an auxiliary verb which has
no lexical meaning — it expresses only grammatical meaning. The
second component is a notional verb which is the bearer of lexical
meaning ('носитель лексического значения'). The auxiliary verb
shows that has worked is the third person singular, the Indicative
Mood, the Active Voice. But the specific meaning of this particu-
lar form, that of the Present Perfect, results only from the combi-
nation of both components.

In the analytical form was written (as in: The letter was written
yesterday), written
is the bearer of lexical meaning; was shows that
we are dealing with the third person singular, the Indicative Mood,
the Past Indefinite, But again the specific grammatical meaning of
this particular form, that of the Passive Voice, is expressed by the
whole combination of the auxiliary and the notional verb.

Thus an analytical form consists of two words — a structural
word and a notional word — which form a very close, inseparable
unit. It functions in English as the form of a single word by the
side of synthetic forms (e.g. he works, he has worked, he worked,
he was working, he had worked,
etc.).

The auxiliary verb itself may be an analytical form (e.g. He
has been working. He will be working. The letter has been written,
etc.). Such forms may be called complex analytical forms.


FINITE FORMS OF THE VERB
Tense, Aspect andPhase

§ 7. Tense is the form of the verb which indicates the time of
the action. The category of tense in English is made up by a set of
forms opposed to each other in referring the event or state de-
scribed to the present, past or future.

Aspect is the form of the verb which serves to express the
manner in which the action is regarded. There are two opposing
sets of aspect forms in English — the Continuous forms and the
Non-Continuous (Indefinite) forms. The Non-Continuous (Indefi-
nite) forms have a very broad meaning, they have no specialized
aspect characteristics of their own and merely represent an action
as occurring. Conversely, the Continuous forms have a clear-cut
aspect characteristic, which is to represent an action in its tempo-
rary development. The Continuous forms have a number of other
concomitant meanings or overtones that go with the basic meaning
of process and duration. They are incompletion, simultaneity, viv-
idness of description, emotional colouring and emphasis.

Besides, there are the Perfect forms which are opposed to the
Non-Perfect forms. The latter have no definite grammatical char-
acteristics. The grammatical meaning of the Perfect forms is to
express retrospectiveness, which consists of two elements — prior-
ity and relevance. In some grammars this category has been given
the name phase.

The three grammatical categories of the English verb are so
closely merged together that it is impossible to treat them sepa-
rately.

We find the following finite forms in English: the Present In-
definite, the Present Continuous, the Present Perfect, the Present
Perfect Continuous, the Past Indefinite, the Past Continuous, the
Past Perfect, the Past Perfect Continuous, the Future Indefinite,
the Future Continuous, the Future Perfect, the Future Indefinite-
in-the-Past, the Future Continuous-in-the-Past, and the Future
Perfect-in-the-Past.

§ 8. 1) In discussing the use of English finite forms it is neces-
sary to understand that in most cases the choice is free: the form
is chosen in accordance with the meaning the speaker wishes to


convey and does not depend on the structure of the sentence, e.g.
He knows English. He knew English. He will know English.

In certain cases, however, the choice of the form is determined
by the structure of the sentence, usually the kind of clause in
which it is used. For example, the use of the Present Indefinite
with reference to the future in a clause of time or condition (a),
or the use of a finite form under the rules of the sequence of
tenses (b).

e.g. a) When you feelhungry, I'll bring you some sandwiches.

If I wantanything I'llcall you up.
b) She knew that Henry would be waitingfor her.
Iwondered if he had kepthis promise.

In such cases we have the structurally dependent useof finite
forms.

In still other cases the choice of the finite form in a sub-
ordinate clause is determined not so much by the kind of clause
as by the lexical character of the head-word, i.e. the word in the
principal clause which the subordinate clause modifies or refers
to. For example, in object clauses subordinated to the verbs to
see to, to take care
or to make sure the future forms are not
used.

e.g. He'll take care that she comesin time.

She saw to it that they hadplenty of food in the house.

In such cases we have the lexically-dependent useof finite
forms.

2) Closely connected with the above notion is the absoluteand
relative useof finite forms. The forms may refer an action direct-
ly to the present, past or future time. We are dealing in this case
with the absolute use of finite forms, which, as a rule, is structur-
ally independent.

But in certain types of clauses the verb form of the sub-
ordinate clause only shows whether the action of the clause is si-
multaneous with that of the principal clause, precedes it or follows
it. (These relations may be termed as simultaneity, priorityand
posteriorityrespectively.) In this case we are dealing with the rela-
tive use of finite forms. It is usually structurally dependent (see,
for example, the rules of the sequence of tenses).


e.g. He discoveredthat his wife knewLondon far better than he did.
He knewthat she had readhis thoughts.
He thoughtthat he would hatethe place.

3) Last but not least, students of English should differentiate
between present-time contextsand past-time contexts.

In present-time contexts,i.e. in conversations, letters, newspa-
per and radio reports, lectures and scientific prose, the situation is
viewed from the moment of speaking. (The moment of speaking is
to be understood as present from the speaker's point of view but
not as the present moment.) Any finite form that is required by
the sense can be used in present-time contexts. The only reserva-
tion should be made for the Past Perfect and the Past Perfect Con-
tinuous and all the Future-in-the-Past forms which are, in present-
time contexts, mainly found in reported speech or thought.

In past-time contexts,i.e. in narration, the situation is viewed
from a past moment. Hence, the use of finite forms is restricted
only to past forms including the Future-in-the-Past.




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