Помощничек
Главная | Обратная связь


Археология
Архитектура
Астрономия
Аудит
Биология
Ботаника
Бухгалтерский учёт
Войное дело
Генетика
География
Геология
Дизайн
Искусство
История
Кино
Кулинария
Культура
Литература
Математика
Медицина
Металлургия
Мифология
Музыка
Психология
Религия
Спорт
Строительство
Техника
Транспорт
Туризм
Усадьба
Физика
Фотография
Химия
Экология
Электричество
Электроника
Энергетика

Expressions of Absence of Necessity



§ 121.The main verbs expressing necessity are: must, to have
to, to be to, should
and ought to.

Yet care should be taken to remember that the verbs must, to
be to, should
and ought to in their negative forms do not express
absence of necessity (see the use of these verbs above).

Absence of necessity is expressed by the negative forms of to
have to
and need.

Inthe present tense:

e.g. You don't have to gothere.
You needn't gothere.

The two verbs generally differ in that needn't + infinitive in-
dicates that the speaker gives authority for the non-performance
of some action, whereas don't (doesn't) have + infinitive is used
when absence of necessity is based on external circumstances.

Cf.You needn'tcome here. (I'll manage everything without your

help.)

You don't have to cometo the Institute tomorrow. (There
will be no lectures tomorrow.)

In the past tense (where the regular form of the verb need is
found) the two verbs are similar in meaning. They both indicate
that there was no necessity, and hence no action. But to need is
not in common use.

e.g.You did not haveto go there.
You did not needto go there.

Note. Care should be taken not to use You needn't have gone there as an ex-
pression of absence of necessity because it means that an action was carried out
though it was unnecessary.

FORMS EXPRESSING UNREALITY

§ 122-As has been said above, owing to certain historical chang-
es. we find a variety of forms expressing unreality in present-day
English (see also "Verbs", § 73).


These forms are:

1) the plain stem of the verb for all persons (a survival of the
old Subjunctive Mood),

e.g. Ivory insisted that he be present, in the most friendly fashion

imaginable.
They proposed that he borrowthe money from the bank.

2) were for all persons (also a survival of the old Subjunctive
Mood),

e.g. I wish I wereten years younger.

3) the form of the Past Indefinite,
e.g. He looked as if he knew about it.

4) the form of the Past Perfect,

e.g. He looked as if he hadseen a ghost.

5) should(for the first person, singular and plural) or would
(for the other persons) + infinitive,

e.g. If I had a garden I should growtulips in it.
If he had a garden he would growtulips in it.

6) should(for the first person, singular and plural) or would
(for the other persons) + Perfect infinitive,

e.g. If it hadn't rained I should have gonefor a walk.
If it hadn't rained he would have gonefor a walk.

7) should(for all persons) + infinitive,

e.g. I insist that he should meetus at the station.

8) would(for all persons) + infinitive,
e.g. I wish he wouldn't interruptme.

9) may (might)+ infinitive,

e.g. I'm telling you this so that you may write to your parents

about it.

I told you thatso that you mightwrite to your parents
about it.


10) can (could)+ infinitive,

e.g. I'm telling you this so that you can writeto your parents

about it.

I told you that so that you could writeto your parents
about it.

11) were to (for all persons) 4- infinitive,

e.g. If he were todiscover the truth he would never speak to us
again.

§ 123.All these forms denoting unreality may be subdivided
into two groups according to their meaning.

Some of them are used to represent an action as hypothetical,
i.e. the speaker does not know whether the action will take place
or not, the realization of the action is doubtful, questionable.

e.g. Most of them insisted that the proposal be discussed without

delay.
They suggested that Meg shouldstay with them for another

week.

Other forms express actions contradicting reality,i.e. actions
which cannot be realized.

e.g, I wish I hadseen the procession.

If I were a writer I should writedetective stories.

§ 124.The forms described above can be classified in the fol-
lowing way:

1) Of all the forms expressing unreality only one may be found
in the same syntactic structures as the Indicative Mood. The choice
between the two forms is based on meaning (see also "Verbs",
§§154-159).

This form is built up analytically, by means of the auxiliary
verbs should/would+ infinitive.Although should is generally used
for the first person, singular and plural, and would for the other
Persons, there is a strong tendency in present-day English to use
Would for all persons. This fluctuation in the use of should and
Would disappears in spoken English where the contracted form 'd +
infinitive is used.


The form has two tenses: the present tense should/would + in
finitive
which is used with reference to the present or future (a),
and the past tense should/would + Perfect infinitive which refers
the action to the past (b).

e.g. a) I should be glad to see him (if I had a chance).

b) I should have been glad to see him (if I had had a chance).

The use of should be glad in (a) is opposed to the Indicative
Mood in / am glad to see him or / shall be glad to see him. The use
of should have been glad in (b) is opposed to the Indicative Mood
in / was glad to see him.

Similarly, He would go there with pleasure (if it were possible)
is opposed to He will go there with pleasure; He would have gone
there with pleasure
to He went there with pleasure.

This form may be called the Conditional Mood. It represents
an action as contradicting reality. The action is unreal because it
depends on an unreal condition; as the condition cannot be real-
ized, the action that depends on it cannot be fulfilled either.

In accordance with its meaning the Conditional Mood is often
used in the principal clause of a complex sentence of unreal condi-
tion.

e.g. If he were not ill he would come.

If he had not been ill he would have come.

2) The only forms of the old Subjunctive Mood that have sur-
vived in English are:

a) The form of the plain verb stem for all persons. It repre-
sents an action as hypothetical. It is used only in certain types of
subordinate clauses (see "Verbs", §§ 129, 131, 140).

e.g. He proposed that the plan be adopted.

It is necessary that you say it in his presence.

This form has no tense distinctions. In its use it is inter-
changeable with should + infinitive in definite types of subordi-
nate clauses and is mostly found in American English.

Traditionally this form is called the Subjunctive Mood.

b) The form were for all persons. It serves to show that an ac-
tion contradicts reality and is also used in certain types of subor-
dinate clauses (but not in the same types as the form of the plain
verb stem) (see "Verbs", §§ 132, 133, 136, 144, 146).


e.g- If I were you I should not accept his offer.
I wish he were here.

The form were refers the action to the present or to the future.
In some syntactic structures it is now often replaced by was.

3) As the formal difference between the Indicative Mood and
the Subjunctive Mood has in many cases disappeared, the forms of
the Past Indefinite (a) and the Past Perfect (b) came to express
unreality in English.

a) The form of the Past Indefinite is used to express an action
contradicting reality with reference to the present or future. This
use of the Past Indefinite is found in certain types of subordinate
clauses (see "Verbs", §§ 132, 133, 136, 144, 146).

e.g. If I knew it, I should tell you about it.
I wish I knew it.

Thus the Past Indefinite performs two different functions in
English: its main function is to represent an action as a fact re-
ferring to the past; but it may also represent an action as contra-
dicting reality with reference to the present or future.

Further in describing the use of the forms of unreality the
form were will be included among the forms of the Past Indefinite,
because they are used in the same constructions and with the same
meaning. It should be mentioned that were with the first and third
persons singular is often replaced by was in present-day English.

b) Parallel to the use of the form of the Past Indefinite, the
form of the Past Perfect came to represent actions contradicting re-
ality in the past. The Past Perfect is used in the same types of sub-
ordinate clauses as the Past Indefinite when it expresses unreality.

e.g. If I had known it, I should have told you about it.
I wish I had known it.

Thus actions contradicting reality are expressed in present-day
English by means of tense shift. The Past Indefinite is used to ex-
press unreality in the present, the Past Perfect has the same
function in the past.

4) Other means of expressing unreality in present-day English
aге combinations of modal verbs with an infinitive. They are
Mainly found in definite types of subordinate clauses (see "Verbs",
§§129, 131, 132, 135, 138, 140, 143, 149).


e.g. He suggested that we should jointhem.

Ifhe were to getthe job he would go on with his studies.

It should be noted that the modal phrase should (for all per-
sons) + infinitive is used in the same sentence patterns as the
Subjunctive Mood. The two forms exist side by side.

e.g. I suggest that he go (shouldgo) with us.

It is necessary that he go (shouldgo) with us.

In British English the difference between the two forms is sty-
listic: should + infinitive is in common use and may be found in
any style, whereas the use of the Subjunctive Mood is restricted
to the language of official documents and to high prose. In Amer-
ican English the Subjunctive Mood is generally preferred.

§ 125. To sum up all the forms described above, it is possible
to say that unreality is expressed in present-day English by the
following means:

a) by mood forms;

b) by the tense shift;

c) by modal phrases.

§ 126.All these means of expressing unreality may have the
continuous (a) and passive (b) forms if the lexical meaning of the
verb admits of that and when it is required by the situation.

e.g. a) If he were not readingnow we'd turn on the radio.

If he were in Moscow they would be showinghim the city.
He looked at me as if he were wonderingwhat they had on

their minds.
b) They proposed that the meeting be adjourned (should be

adjourned).
If he had been sent for
at once he might have saved us a

lot of trouble.
He wished he had been toldabout it.

§ 127.Before describing the use of the various forms of unre-
ality it is necessary to understand the factors which determine
their choice.


 

1) Sometimes the choice between the Indicative Mood and this
or that particular form of unreality depends on the structure of
the sentence, mainly on the type of the subordinate clause in
which this form occurs, and in certain cases even on the lexical
character of the predicate verb in the principal clause. This may
be termed as the structurally dependentuse of formsexpressing
unreality.

2) In other cases the choice is independent of the structure of
the sentence and is determined by the attitude of the speaker to-
wards the actions expressed in the sentence. This may be termed
as the independent(or free) use of forms expressing unreality.

3) Ina limited number of cases the use of forms expressing
unreality has become a matter of tradition and is to be treated as
set phrases, as other sentences cannot be built up on their pat-
terns. This may be termed as the traditionaluse of formsex-
pressing unreality.

The following will be a description of forms expressing unreal-
ity in accordance with this division.

Structurally Dependent Use of Forms
Expressing Unreality

The Use ofForms Expressing Unreality inObject Clauses

§ 128. In object clauses the use of different forms of the predi-
cate depends on the lexical character of the predicate verb in the
principal clause.

As a rule, we find the Indicative Mood in object clauses after
most verbs.

e.g. We know (that) he is doingvery well in his studies.
They thought (that) he hadgiven up his idea.
He said that he wouldsoon be back.

As is well known, the rules of the sequence of tenses are to be
observed here.

Note. Care should be taken to remember that in object clauses after expressions
of regret, surprise, sometimes pleasure or displeasure the emotional should can be
used alongside the Indicative Mood (see "Verbs", § 109, 2a).


§ 129. However, after certain verbs and expressions we find
forms of unreality in object clauses.

Thus should + infinitive or the Subjunctive Mood is used after
expressions of suggestion, order or decision such as to decide, to
demand, to give instructions, to give orders, to insist, to make up
one's mind, to move, to order, to propose, to recommend, to re
quest, to require, to suggest, to urge
and also after to arrange, to
be anxious, to be determined, to prefer
and to take care.

e.g. Con demanded that Andrew should returnto the house with
him to tea.

She urged that they go to Europe.

He had given instructions that everything possible shouldbe
done.

He was determined that they shouldsee everything.

But if I write about war, self-respect demands that occasion-
ally I sharethe risks.

He requested me as a favour that I should reportto him any
"points of interest" that I might pick up on my visits
there.

The situation required that he be courteous.

In all those cases the action of the subordinate clause follows
the action of the principal clause. Therefore, this should is never
combined with the Perfect infinitive.

Object clauses after expressions of order and suggestion are
generally introduced by the conjunction that; asyndetic connection
is less frequent. The rules of the sequence of tenses are not ob-
served in object clauses of this type.

e.g. They propose(d)that the issue should be discussedin a week.
They propose(d)that the issue bediscussed in a week.

§ 130. In object clauses subordinated to the principal clause
with it as a formal subject we find the Indicative Mood after such
expressions as it is wonderful (natural, strange, singular, absurd-
terrible, monstrous, queer, odd,
etc.) it infuriated (outraged-
startled, surprised, puzzled) me
and the like. The Indicative Mood
is also used after it is possible (likely, probable) in affirmative
sentences.


e.g. But it's natural that you cometo get used to things.
It's just possible that .he leftthem alone.
It's wonderful that you carry such petty details in your head.
It's hardly likely that anyone will botherto go into it this af-
ternoon.

Clauses of this kind are usually introduced by the conjunction
that; asyndetic connection is not common.

Care should be taken to observe the rules of the sequence of
tenses when the Indicative Mood is used.

e.g. It is strange that he behaveslike that.
It wasstrange that he behavedlike that.
It is strange that he behavedlike that at the party.
It wasstrange that he had behavedlike that at the party.

Note. As has been shown in § 109, 2, the emotional should may be used in the
above cases too. In contrast to the Indicative Mood, it adds emotional colouring to the
statements, though in both cases actual facts are referred to. However, after it is pos
sible (likely, probable)
in affirmative sentences the Indicative Mood is the rule.

§ 131.Yet, after certain other expressions in the principal
clause the modal phrase should + infinitive or the Subjunctive
Mood is always used in the object clause. They are expressions of
necessity or recommendation, such as it is necessary (important,
vital, imperative, essential, urgent, advisable, desirable);
we also
find these forms after the Passive Voice of some verbs expressing
suggestion, order, decision, such as it is suggested (proposed, re-
quired, demanded, requested, recommended, decided, agreed, deter-
mined, arranged).

e.g. It is necessary at times that certain persons should be encour-
aged.

"Itis necessary that they becareful in the lab," he added.

It is advisable that she should havesomeone to keep an eye
on her,

"It's so important that they should knowthe right things
from the beginning," Isabel had explained.

It was agreed beforehand that he should havethe first shot.

He says it's quite essential that you doit after supper.

It's been suggested that I should joinone of the public ser-
vices.


In all those cases the action of the subordinate clause follows
the action of the principal clause. Therefore, should is never com-
bined with the Perfect infinitive in such constructions.

As a rule, object clauses after all those predicates are also intro-
duced by the conjunction that; asyndetic connection is not common.

Note that the rules of the sequence of tenses are not observed
when should + infinitive or the Subjunctive Mood is used.

e.g. It is arranged that he have (should have) the lab all to himself.
It was arranged that he have (should have) the lab all to

himself.

§ 132. In object clauses after the verb to wish we find the form
of the Past Indefinite (or the form were) or the Past Perfect to ex-
press a wish which cannot be fulfilled or a hardly realizable wish.

e.g. I wish I deserved your compliments. I don't.
I wish you had asked me anything but that.
I wish it were true.
I wished that Thomas hadn't brought me there.

Note. For a realizable wish other verbs and constructions are used,

e.g. I want to see him.
I want himto come.
I should like to talk to you.
I should like him to call me up.
I wish to see it for myself.
I wish him to do something for me.

Object clauses after the verb to wish are usually joined to the
principal clause asyndetically, though sometimes the conjunction
that is found.

The rules of the sequence of tenses are not observed in this
construction. In object clauses after the verb to wish the tense
forms indicate the following:

a) The use of the Past Indefinite form shows that the action of
the subordinate clause is simultaneous with that of the principal
clause,

e.g. I wish(ed) he were with us.

b) If the action of the subordinate clause precedes that of the
principal clause, the form of the Past Perfect is used.


e.g. I wish(ed) he had stayed at home.

c) When the action of the object clause follows that of the
principal clause, we find the modal verbs would + infintive, might
+ infinitive and could + infinitive in the subordinate clause.

e.g. I wish(ed) the child would show more affection for me.
I wish(ed) I could drop the whole matter.
I wish(ed) you might stay with us a little longer.

Note 1. However, could + infinitive and might + infinitive may also be used to
express a simultaneous action.

e.g. I wish 1 could understand you.
I wish he might be here.

Note 2. It should be noted that would + infinitive is not common with the
first person.

As all these forms express an unrealizable wish, they serve as
expressions of regret rather than wish. That is why they may be
rendered in Russian in two ways. Thus the sentence / wish I knew
it,
where the actions in both clauses are simultaneous, may be
translated as Как бы мне хотелось это знать or Как жаль,
что я этого не знаю.
When the action of the subordinate clause
precedes that of the principal clause, there is only one way of ren-
dering such sentences in Russian, namely Как жаль, что.. . For
example, the sentence / wish I had told him about it is translated
as Как жаль, что я не рассказал ему об этом. Thus, where the
verb in the object clause is affirmative in English, it is negative in
Russian, and vice versa.

e.g. I wish I had told him the truth. (Как жаль, что я не сказал

ему правды.)
I wish I hadn't acted like that. (Как жаль, что я так поступил.)

When the action of the subordinate clause follows that of the
principal clause, it is not necessary to translate the modal verbs
into Russian; the usual way of rendering such sentences is Как бы

мне хотелось... .

e-g. I wish he would tell me everything. (Как бы мне хотелось,

чтобы он все мне рассказал.)

I wish I could (might) go round the world. (Как бы мне хоте-
лось объехать весь мир.)


Note. I wish you would + infinitive has become a set phrase and is an equiva-
lent of the Imperative Mood; it is emotionally coloured.

e.g. I wish you would keep quiet.
I wish you would stop it.

Compare it with the Russian Да перестань же ты, наконец.

§ 133.After the idiomatic phrase it is time (also it is high
time, it is about time)
we find the form of the Past Indefinite (or
the form were).
e.g. "Now let's talk." "Yes," she said quietly, "it's time we did,

Arnie." (= пора бы)
It's high time we got ridof our old furniture. (= давно пора

бы)

It's high time you werein bed too, my child.
He said: "It's time we ordereddinner."
Clauses of this kind are usually joined to the principal clause

asyndetically.

The rules of the sequence of tenses are not observed in this

kind of clauses.

e.g. It's time we hadlunch.
It wastime we hadlunch.

§ 134.After expressions of fear, such as to be afraid, to be fear-
ful, to be frightened, to be in terror, to be nervous, to be terrified,
to be troubled, to fear, to have apprehension, to tremble
and others,
we commonly find the Indicative Mood in the object clause. Care
should be taken to observe the rules of the sequence of tenses.

e.g. I am afraid nothing has been doneyet.
She was afraid that he had seenher.
I was afraid you were going to strikehim.

§ 135.Occasionally we also find may + infinitive in object
clauses after expressions of fear. The rules of the sequence of
tenses are also observed in this case.

e.g. She's afraid he maymiss his only chance.

She wasafraid he might misshis only chance.


But in literary style, object clauses are sometimes introduced
by the conjunction lest. In this case should + infinitive (rarely the
Subjunctive Mood) is used in the object clause. The rules of the
sequence of tenses are not observed here.

e.g. They were terrified lest someone should discovertheir secret
hiding place.

An hour before his train was due he began to have apprehen-
sion lest he should missit.

He seemed nervous lest, in thus announcing his intentions,
he should be settinghis granddaughter a bad example.

§ 136.In object clauses introduced by the conjunctions if and
whether after expressions of doubt and negative expressions we
sometimes find the form were.

e.g. He would wonder for a moment, looking into her shining

eyes, if it were true.

He did not ask himself if she werepretty.
When they were back in their seats, Maurice asked Adeline if

she were still enjoyingthe play.

Generally we find the Indicative Mood in such clauses; the use
of the above mentioned form is characteristic of literary style; it
is a survival of the old use of the Subjunctive Mood.

TheUse of Forms Expressing Unreality
in Appositive and Predicative Clauses

§ 137.In appositive clauses which are usually introduced by
the conjunction that the use of different forms of the predicate
depends on the lexical character of the noun they modify.

As a rule, the Indicative Mood is found in this kind of clauses.
The rules of the sequence of tenses are to be observed in this case.

e-g. The idea that he thoughthimself anything but intelligent

was absurd.

He is under the impression that I am hidingsomething from
him.


§ 138. But should + infinitive (or rarely the Subjunctive Mood) is
used in appositive clauses after nouns expressing order, suggestion,
wish, agreement and decision, such as agreement, ambition, decision,
demand, desire, order, proposal, recommendation, request, require
ment, suggestion, understanding, wish
and some others.

e.g. He told me of his desire that all should be happy as long as it

involved no inconvenience to himself.
He had supported them for years, but on the understanding

that they should live in Europe.
I'm afraid you'll have to go to him with the suggestion that

he dismiss the case.
There was no likelihood that anyone should be there.

The rules of the sequence of tenses are not observed in this case.

§ 139. The same rules hold good for predicative clauses — gen-
erally the Indicative Mood is used in them.
e.g. The question is how we are going to find the means to do it.

The fact was that I hardly knew what to say.

The trouble is that he didn't find him in.

The rules of the sequence of tenses are observed in this case.

§ 140. But when the subject of the principal clause is ex-
pressed by one of such nouns as aim, arrangement, condition, de-
cision, idea, plan, proposal, suggestion, wish
and some others,
should + infinitive is used in the subordinate clause. The rules of
the sequence of tenses are not observed,
e.g. My suggestion is that as soon as the rain lets up we should

go along there and see what we can do.

His desire was that life should fall in with his own limited
but deliberate plans.

The Use of Forms Expressing Unreality
in Adverbial Clauses

§ 141. Forms expressing unreality are found in clauses of pur-
pose, comparison, concession and in both the principal and the
subordinate clause of a conditional sentence.


Adverbial Clauses of Purpose

§ 142. An adverbial modifier of purpose is usually expressed
by an infinitive when the agent of that infinitive is the same as
the subject in the sentence.

e.g. He said that he was going out to buy some stationary.
He went up to his room to change.

The infinitive may sometimes {though not often) be preceded
by in order or so as.

e.g. I had to keep drinking coffee in order to stay awake.

You'd better wait outside so as to be at hand if I want you.

So as is more often used to introduce a negative infinitive,
e.g. She sat still so as not to disturb the dog.

§ 143. A subordinate clause of purpose is found when the sub-
ject of this clause is not the same as the subject of the principal
clause.

Clauses of purpose are introduced by the conjunction so that
(sometimes that or in order that, both of which are characteristic
of literary style, and so, which is colloquial). The predicate in
these clauses is expressed by may or can + infinitive and the
rules of the sequence of tenses are to be observed in this case.

e.g. As you go, leave the door open so that the light from the
lamp may show you some of the way down.

She dressed quickly for dinner so that she might see him the
sooner.

You'll have to come into the hospital so that we can keep you
under observation.

He slid out of bed, felt his way over to the door of the room,
and opened it a little so that he could hear what the wom-
en were saying.

If the verb in the subordinate clause is in the negative form,
should + infinitive is preferred.

e-g. I stood up, my back turned so that he should not see my face.
"Sit down," he said, dropping his voice so that the two men
in the room should not hear.


In literary style we sometimes find clauses of purpose intro-
duced by the conjunction lest (чтобы... не). l In this case should +
infinitive
(rarely the Subjunctive Mood) is used in the subordinate
clause. As the conjunction lest is negative in meaning, the verb is
in the affirmative form,
e.g. An access of joy made him shut his eyes lest tears should

flow from them, (...чтобы из них не потекли слезы.)
Не withdrew his eyes lest she should read them.
Lest he freeze, he wore a ragged sweater over the ensemble.

The rules of the sequence of tenses are not observed here.
Sometimes, though not often, the Indicative Mood (the Future
Indefinite) is used in adverbial clauses of purpose instead of mod-
al phrases.

e.g. I, too, want to live in London so that the children will have
someone to turn to in case anything should happen to them.
She gave him the key so that he would lock the car.

Adverbial Clauses of Comparison

§ 144. In clauses of comparison introduced by the conjunctions
as if or as though we find the form of the Past Indefinite includ-
ing the form were for all the persons or the Past Perfect.

The form of the Past Indefinite (or Continuous) shows that
the action of the subordinate clause is simultaneous with the ac-
tion of the principal clause.

e.g. He asked me the question as if the answer were really impor-
tant to him.

He looks as though he had plenty of determination.
They passed her in silence, with their noses in the air, as

though she did not exist.
Her lips moved soundlessly, as if she were rehearsing.

Note. In contemporary English the form were is sometimes replaced by was in
the 1st and 3d persons singular,
e.g. He behaves as if he was the boss here.

1 This conjunction should not be confused with the homonymous conjunction lest
which is used to introduce object clauses after expressions of fear. The latter is not
negative in meaning.


The form of the Past Perfect (Continuous) shows that the action
of the subordinate clause precedes the action of the principal clause.

e.g. Bosinney gazed at him as though he had not heard.

The dog rushed at me and licked my hands in a frenzy of de-
light as if I had been away a long time.

He sounded breathless on the telephone as though he had
been running.

If the action of the subordinate clause follows the action of
the principal clause, would + infinitive is used.

e.g. She sank back on her chair and leaning her head on her hands

began to weep as though her heart would break.
She looked up at me defiantly as if she would turn on me that
very moment.

The rules of the sequence of tenses are not observed in such
clauses.

Note 1. Compare complex sentences with a clause of comparison in Russian and
in English.

e.g. Она смотрела на меня так, словно не узнавала меня. — She looked at me as

if she did not recognize me.

Он говорил о фильме так, будто он сам его видел. — Не spoke of the film
as if he had seen it.

In Russian it is generally necessary to use the correlative так in the principal
clause, whereas in English it is not required.

Note 2. Clauses introduced by as if and as though are treated as predicative
clauses when they follow the verbs to look, to sound, to feel.

e.g. At first he sounded as though he were trying to avoid a scene.
She was so ill that for days it looked as if she would die.
The man looked as though he had once been a miner.

Complex Sentences with a Subordinate Clause of Condition

§ 145. Complex sentences with a subordinate clause of condi-
tion (conditional sentences)1 may be divided into two groups: sen-
tences of real condition and sentences of unreal condition.

1 In conditional sentences forms expressing unreality are used in both the princi-
pal clause and in the subordinate clause (the if-clause), whereas in all the previously
described types of sentences forms expressing unreality are found only in subordinate
clauses.


In sentences of real conditionwe find the Indicative Mood.
They usually refer to the future, so the Future tense is used in
the principal clause and the present tense in the if-clause.

e.g. If you continuein this way you'll break your mother's heart.
You won't be believedif you tellthe truth.

Sentences of real condition may also refer to the present or
past, though not very often.

e.g. I always losemoney if I bet.

In the evenings we playedchess or strolledabout if it was

fine.

It should be noted that sentences of the latter kind express
regularly occurring actions.

Clauses of condition are usually joined to the principal clause
by means of the conjunction if and are therefore called if-clauses.
There are other conjunctions which serve to introduce clauses of
condition, but their use is not so common. They are: unless, in
case, supposing (suppose) that, providing (provided) that, on condi
tion that.

Note. If has the most general meaning of all the conjunctions introducing
clauses of condition. Its use is not restricted in any way, whereas all the other
conjunctions are limited in their application either for semantic or stylistic rea-
sons. Roughly unless means 'if...not'. However, there is a difference between
them: unless has the more exclusive meaning of 'only if... not' or 'except on con-
dition that'. The most adequate way of rendering this conjunction in Russian is
если только не.

e.g. We never part with things, you know, unless we want something in their place.
"Does the professor know?" "No. And he won't unless it is absolutely neces-
sary."

While if ... not can be used instead of unless, though the clause will be de-
prived of the above mentioned specific shade of meaning, unless cannot always
serve as a substitute for if ... not. For example, unless cannot be used in the follow-
ing sentence:
e.g. If your wife doesn't like the ring, I'll be happy to exchange it any time.

In case also has a specific shade of meaning implying purpose as well as condi-
tion. It should be rendered in Russian as на mоm случай, если.

e.g. I'd like the doctor handy in case she feels worse.

I've made provision in case anything happens to me.


Supposing (that) and suppose (that) preserve the meaning of supposition as
their origin from the verb to suppose is still strongly felt. They are best of all ren-
dered in Russian by means of предположим and are found in the following kinds
of sentences:

e.g. Suppose he doesn't turn up, what shall we do?

What will his uncle think of him, supposing it's true?

Providing (that) and provided (that) are rather narrow in meaning indicating a
favourable and desirable condition, which is explained by their connection with the
verb to provide. Besides, they are rather formal stylistically, being more typical of
official documents. The closest Russian equivalents are если, при наличии, при
условии.

e.g. But so long as a Forsyte got what he was after, he was not too particular about

the means, provided appearances were saved.

We are prepared to sign the agreement providing that you guarantee the high
quality of the goods.

On condition (that) is also connected with its original meaning (при условии)
and at the same time it is restricted stylistically, being more formal than if.

e.g. I will agree to this year's budget on condition that we drop this foreign busi-
ness in future.

All these conjunctions may be used in sentences of both real and unreal condition.

§ 146.In sentences of unreal condition we find forms express-
ing unreality: the form of the Past Indefinite or the Past Perfect
is used in the if-clause, and the Conditional Mood (Present and
Past) is used in the principal clause.

The action of the if-clause is represented by the speaker as con-
tradicting reality; consequently the action of the principal clause,
which depends on this unreal condition, cannot be realized either.

When a sentence of unreal condition refers to the present or
future, the form of the Past Indefinite is used in the if-clause and
the Present Conditional Mood in the principal clause.

e.g. How nice it wouldbe for Mother if we hada car.

You ought to know your uncle by this time. He's just like a

child. He'd be a pauper tomorrow if I didn'tsee to things.
If the hospital were not so overcrowded, he said, he would

recommendthat she should be taken there.

When a sentence of unreal condition refers to the past, we
find the form of the Past Perfect in the if-clause and the Past
Conditional Mood in the principal clause.


e.g. It would have beentoo wonderful if he had saidthat. But he

didn't.
Of course, all this wouldn't have happenedif the girl hadn't

beenso excited.
I should have beensorry if I hadn't spoken.

§ 147.Note the following construction which may be used with
reference either to the present or to the past.

e.g, "Oh," Maurice went on, "if it weren't for my mother I should

beunhappy at home."
"Mrs Davidson was saying she didn't know how they'd have

gotthrough the journey if it hadn't been for us,"she said.
If it were not for his friend Crowdy,he would bein financial

difficulties.

§ 148.The if-clause and the principal clause need not necessar-
ily refer to the same time: the if-clause may refer to the present
and future and the principal clause may refer to the past, and
vice versa. Sentences of this kind are called a split condition.

e.g. Ifyou werenot so indifferent to him you would have noticed

that there was something happening to him.
You must remember if Mr Reed hadn't takenme out ofthe
drawing office, I should bethere now getting two pounds a
week.

§ 149.Sentences of unreal condition referring to the future
may be of four types: l

1) The first type has already been described: the Past Indefi-
nite is used in the if-clause and the Present Conditional Mood in
the principal clause.

e.g. Half of the people would distrustyou if you wentaway at

such a moment.

If we allowedhim to go on with his experiments we would
never haveany peace.

1 Conditional sentences referring to the future, no matter what forms of the verb
are used in them, are always hypothetical, because one can never be sure of the actual
course of events in the future. But these future actions may be represented differently
by the speaker: either as an actual fact (when the Indicative Mood is used) or as
actions contradicting reality or problematic actions (see § 149).


The action is represented in such sentences as contradicting
reality — the speaker does not believe that it can be realized in
the future.

2) As the above type of conditional sentences may refer to both
the present and the future, there is a strong tendency in English
to use another type which is unambiguous, in order to show that
the action refers only to the future and not to the present.

In this type of conditional sentences we find the form were of
the modal verb to be to followed by an infinitive in the if-clause.
In the principal clause the Conditional Mood is used.

e.g. Mother would resistit bitterly if I were to askfor breakfast

at this hour.
Ifwe were to takethis man in hand for three months he

would becomeas soft as wax.
If young Adeline were to occupythe room it would lookso

different.
IfMeg were to repayyou the fifteen dollars you lent her,

what wouldyou dowith the money?
He had lately thought much about what he would doif he

were to meetthem.

This second type differs from the first type in that it em-
phasizes the tentative character of the condition.

3) Should + infinitive is used in the if-clause and the Future
Indefinite of the Indicative Mood in the principal clause.

e.g. I don't expect any telephone calls tonight. But if anyone
should call,the butler willsay I've gone on a visit to some
of my relatives.

If the other conclusion should becorrect the slight loss of
time will makeno difference.

The Imperative Mood may also be used in the principal clause.

e.g. Better employa solicitor. Sir, in case anything should arise.
If
she shouldleave, keep an eye on her.

This third type of conditional sentences referring to the fu-
ture differs from the first two types in that it shows that the re-
alization of the action is represented as possible though unlikely
(but not contradicting reality as in the first two types). The if-clause


of the third type may be rendered in Russian as Если кто-нибудь
случайно позвонит..., Если так случится, что кто-нибудь слу
чайно позвонит... Если вдруг кто-нибудь позвонит...
. We may
say that the realization of the action depends on some contingency.
In this type of sentences the clause of condition is rather often
introduced by the conjunction in case.

e.g. I'll letyou know in case there should besome unavoidable

delay.
I' ll beat the flat all evening in case you should changeyour

mind.

The clause of condition introduced by this conjunction ac-
quires the meaning of на тот случай, если; в случае если.

4) Sometimes would + infinitive is used in the if-clause and the
Present Conditional Mood in the principal clause.

e.g. Ifhe wouldonly trustme, we wouldget onmuch better.
I'd loveit if you would callme Eliza.

Would + infinitive expresses consent or willingness (=Если бы
вы согласились... Если бы вы захотели...).

A sentence of this type is often a conditional sentence only in
form; it is actually a polite request (see the last example above).

§ 150.The modal verbs can and may can also be found in con-
ditional sentences. If they occur in if-clauses referring to the
present or future, they have the past form.

e.g. If I could bea writer I should writedetective stories.

His bedroom is very cold. If I might movehim into your
study he would feelmore cheerful there.

In the principal clause we generally use the Conditional Mood.
But as can and may are defective verbs and cannot be used in the
Conditional Mood, the past tense of these verbs is used in combi-
nation with the simple infinitive to refer the action to the present
or future.

e.g. I could tryto make the place comfortable with more heart if

the sun were shining.

If you had any office training it might bepossible to use you
up here.


When reference is made to the past, could and might are com-
bined with the Perfect infinitive (both in the if-clause and in the
principal clause).

e.g. Yet if she could have seenme there, she would have been a

little puzzled.

If I hadn't been there something very unpleasant might have
happened
to him.

§ 151.A clause of unreal condition may be joined to the prin-
cipal clause asyndetically. In that case it always precedes the
principal clause and we find inversion in the subordinate clause —
the auxiliary verb is placed before the subject.

e.g. HadIrene beenpresent, the family circle would have been

complete.

Shouldyou wantto do soyou can withdrawyour money at
any time.

As is seen from the above examples, asyndetic connection is
possible only when the predicate of the subordinate clause is an
analytical form (or a modal phrase). This construction is emphatic
and characteristic only of literary style.

Complex Sentences with Adverbial Clauses of Concession

§ 152. Complex sentences with a clause of concession intro-
duced by the conjunction even if or even though are built up on
the same pattern as sentences of unreal condition — the form of
the Past Indefinite or the Past Perfect is used in the subordinate
clause and the Conditional Mood, Present or Past, in the principal
clause.

e.g. But even if you were right, I should be preparedfor any con-
tingency.
Even if I had beena stranger he would have talkedof his

misfortune.

Note. In complex sentences with a clause of concession introduced by though,
although, whoever, whichever, whatever, whenever, however, wherever, no matter
how
the Indicative Mood is used in both clauses.

e.g.. And when we settle down, wherever it is, you'll have a garden, Chris.


In literary style may {might) + infinitive is occasionally used in clauses of con-
cession to lay stress on the meaning of supposition.

e.g. Whatever his invitation may mean,I'm going to accept it.

He said he would be glad to fulfil the conditions whatever they mightbe.

TheUse of Forms Expressing Unreality
in a Special Type of Exclamatory Sentences
§ 153.The form of the Past Indefiniteincluding the form
wereis used in the following type of exclamatory sentences to ex-
press a wish which cannot be fulfilled.

e.g. Oh, ifonly Daddy werehome!
Oh, if only I knewwhat to do!

In the above examples reference is made to the present. With
reference to the past the form of the Past Perfectis used,
e.g. Oh, if only he hadgiven me a chance!

When the sentence refers to the future we find would + infini-
tive
or could + infinitive,

e.g. Ifit wouldonly stopraining for a single day!
Oh, if only you wouldsee a doctor!
If only their life together couldalways be like this!
Sentences of this kind are very emphatic and restricted to spo-
ken English.




©2015 studopedya.ru Все права принадлежат авторам размещенных материалов.