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Бухгалтерский учёт
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1. Britons, and the English in particular, are notoriously undemonstrative. The “stuff upper lip” is not just the stuff of fiction and emotional displays, positive or negative, are generally frowned upon. Gestures such as backslapping and hugging are discouraged and a wide distance should be maintained between participants in a conversation. Maintaining eye contact may be necessary when you are trying to emphasize important points but you must avoid any temptation to “eye-ball”. Talking loudly is unacceptable and shouting is beyond the pale. Some old-fashioned interlocutors may not hear you if you have your hands in your pockets. The British do not gesticulate frantically.

2.Introductions can be tricky.Ideally the British prefer third-party introductions but in certain situations, like a drinks party, it may not always be possible and, though awkward, you may just have to go ahead and introduce yourself. Firm handshakes are the norm as part of a formal introduction but may not be expected at subsequent meetings or on social occasions; a gentleman should always wait for a woman to proffer her hand before squeezing it gently. The continental habit of exchanging kisses has gained currency especially amongst the young and the affected but is not recommended for visitors – even the natives are unsure of the correct procedure.

3.“How do you do?” is a greeting not a question. It is used when people are introduced for the first time only and the correct response is to repeat “How do you do?” which is a more or less sincere enquiry as to your well-being.

4. This emotional detachment or even apparent indifference also explains the British abhorrence of Americanisms such as “Have a nice day”. The objection lies not in the sentiment itself but in the lack of sincerity that is implied to the stand-offish British mentality.

5. If the British use few words, it is because they prefer to mean those they do use. They are polite and courteous for the most part. They expect to be treated with respect, in turn for which they will treat you with respect, so: – if there is a queue, go to the back of the line and wait patiently; - do not use the “V” – sign (raising the index and middle fingers) unless you are sure which is the Churchillian version signifying peace or victory (palm outwards); the use of the alternative version (palm inwards) is less common nowadays but is still vulgar and offensive.

6. A service charge of 10-15 % is almost always included in hotel and restaurant bills and you should be wary of establishments that leave the credit card slip open for you to include an additional contribution (if you wish to reward exceptional service give cash directly to the staff). Do not tip bar staff in pubs where there is no table service. Otherwise taxi drivers (especially in London), hairdressers, porters, etc. will expect 10-15 % or a couple of pounds, whichever is the greater.

IV. Ответьте на вопросы к тексту:

1. What kind of people are Britons?

2. What kind of introductions do the British prefer?

3. What does “How do you do?” mean in Britain?

4. What are the norms of public behaviour in Britain?


V. Бегло прочитав текст , выберите правильный вариант ответа.

At fifth Avenue and 34 th Street stands New York City’s most famous building – starred in over 90 movies, a star of gigantic proportions – The Empire State Building.

Having held the record as the world’s tallest skyscraper for 40 years – the symbol of this city was constructed in only two years – 1930 to 31 and the 1,453 feet colossus instantly became a tourist magnet. Even King Kong came to visit! If you want to see a great panorama of New York city, get upstairs to the observation levels. Lines get pretty long, especially during summer and the holidays, but you can fit a trip here any time, the place is open from 9:30 a.m. until midnight everyday.

The Empire State Building is …

(F)a star.

(G)a great panorama of New York city.

(H)the most famous monument.

(I)the world’s tallest skyscraper.


VI. Расставьте абзацы этого текста в правильном порядке. Первый абзац - это B.

Thanksgiving Day

C.In the autumn of1621 they got a beautiful harvest of corn, barley, beans and pumpkins. The colonists had much to be thankful for, so they planned a feast. Local Indian chief and ninety Indians were present. The colonists learned from Indians how to cook cranberries and dishes of corn and pumpkins.

B. Almost in every culture in the world there is a celebration of thanks for rich harvest. The American Thanksgiving began as a feast of thanksgiving almost four hundred years ago.

A. In 1620, a religious community sailed across the Atlantic Ocean to settle in the New World. They settled in what is now known as the state of Massachusettes. Their first winter in America was difficult. They arrived too late to grow a rich harvest. Moreover, half the colony died from desease. The following spring the Iroquois Indians taught them how to grow corn. Indians showed them also how to grow crops and how to hunt and fish.

E. On Thanksgiving Day, family members gather at the house of an older relative, even if they live far away. All give thanks for everything good they have. Charitable organizations offer traditional meal to the homeless.

D.Foods, eaten at the first thanksgiving, have become traditional. The traditional thanksgiving meal consist of roast turkey stuffed with herb-flavoured bread, cranberry jelly, mashed potatoes, pumpkin pie. Other dishes may vary as to region: ham, sweet potatoes, creamed corn.

F. In following years many of the colonists celebrated the harvest with a feast of thanks. After the United States gained independence, Congress recommended one yearly day of thanksgiving for the whole country. Later, George Washington suggested the date November 26 as Thanksgiving Day. Then, after the Civil war, Abraham Lincoln suggested the last Thursday in November to be the day of thanksgiving.

VII. Верные реплики к данным высказываниям – это:

1. – Could I have your pen for a moment?

2. – How are you doing?

3. – See you!

4. - How do you do?

5. – Here’s your coat.

6. – How are things?


a) - Bye!

b) - Thanks.

c) - How do you do?

d) - Fine, thanks.

e) – Not bad, thanks.

f) – Here you are.


VIII. Выберите один правильный вариант ответа.

1. We ….. a test in our History lesson yesterday.

a) have b) had c) are having

2. Philip ….. yet.

a) has woken up b) woke up c) hasn’t woken up

3. I ….. your brother last week.

a) saw b)has seen c) had seen

4. The Prime Minister …… three new hospitals so far.

a) is opening b) opened c) has opened

5. Peter and Jenny ….. on holiday next week.

a) go b) are going c) have gone

5. It’s hot. I ….. the window.

a) will open b) open c) opened

6) Don’t ….. in class.

a) talks b) talking c) talk

7. James is a good student. He …… his homework every evening.

a) do b) does c) is doing

8. I ….. this film. Let’s watch something else.

a) have seen b) saw c) am seeing

9. Fred fell off the ladder while he ….. the ceiling.

a) used to paint b) was painting c) painted

10. He ….. a magazine once a week, but now he doesn’t.

a) used to buy b) had bought c)didn’t use to buy

11. The train to London ….. at six o’clock in the morning.

a) leaves b) leave c) has left

12. They ….. here for twenty years.

a) work b) were working c) have been working

13. Greg …… down, opened the book and began to read.

a) had sat b) sat c) was sitting

14. There ….. a map and three pictures on the wall of the study.

a) is b) are c) aren’t

15. There ….. no pictures in the book.

a) will b) are c) is


IX. Выберите один правильный вариант ответа.


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