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Лексический комментарий



АНГЛОЯЗЫЧНЫЕ СТРАНЫ: КУЛЬТУРА И ТРАДИЦИИ

Грамматический комментарий

Обзорная таблица видовременных форм английского глагола в действительном залоге

 

  Simple Progressive Perfect Perfect Progressive
  Констатация факта процесс завершенность процесс уже в течение некоторого периода времени
Present   V, V-s   I write. Я пишу (часто).   am is V-ing are I am writing. Я пишу (сейчас). have V3 has I have written. Я написал (сегодня, уже, только что). have been V-ing has I have been writing. Я пишу (уже час, с 2 часов).
Past   V-ed, V2   I wrote. Я (на)писал (вчера, 2 дня тому назад).   was V-ing were I was writing. Я писал (вчера в 3 часа, когда он вошел).   had V3   I had written. Я написал (вчера к 3 часам, до того как он пришел).   had been V-ing   I had been writing. Я писал (уже 2 часа, когда он пришел)
Future will (shall) V   I will (shall) write.   Я напишу, буду писать завтра. will (shall) be V-ing   I will (shall) be writing. Я буду писать (завтра в 3 часа).   will (shall) have V3   I will (shall) have written. Я напишу (завтра к 3 часам, до того как он придет). will (shall) have been V-ing I will (shall) have been writing. Я буду писать (завтра уже 3 часа, когда он придет).

 

Модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты

Значение Present Past Future
  can could Shall/will be able to
физическая или умственная способность I can skate. – Я умею кататься на коньках. I could skate when I was 6 years old. – Я мог кататься на коньках в шесть лет. I will be able to skate. – Я смогу кататься на коньках.
    May     was/were allowed   shall/will be allowed
разрешение совершить действие You may go home. – Вы можете идти домой. I was allowed to go home. – Мне разрешили пойти домой. You will be allowed to go home. – Вам разрешат пойти домой.
  Must - -
моральный долг, долженствование I must do it now. - Я должен это сделать.    
  Have to, has to had to Shall/will have to
  I have to wear a uniform. – Мне приходится носить униформу. I had to go there. – Я вынужден был туда пойти. You will have to go there.- Вам придётся туда пойти.

 

Вариант1

Лексический комментарий

I. Запомните эти слова и составьте с ними 5 предложения.

Nouns Существительные
Introduction Официальное представление
First / Christian / given name Имя
Surname/ second/ last/ family name Фамилия
Patronymic/ middle name Отчество
Custom 1) обычай; 2) клиентура
Courtesy Вежливость, учтивость
Issue Спорный вопрос
Attitude Отношение к чему-либо
Response Ответ, реакция
Behavior Поведение
Leisure Досуг
Acquaintance 1) знакомый, 2) знакомство
Associate Коллега, партнер, товарищ
Grooming Уход за внешностью
Verbs Глаголы
Accept Принимать, соглашаться
Accept (take) for granted Считать само собой разумеющимся
Face Стоять перед лицом чего-либо
Introduce 1) представлять; 2) вносить на рассмотрение
Save 1) экономить; 2) беречь
Waste Расточать, истощать
Spend Тратить, расходовать
Drop in (into) Заглянуть, зайти куда-либо
Be concerned with something Быть озабоченным чем-либо
Adjectives & Adverbs Прилагательные и наречия
Acceptable Приемлемый
Accepted Общепринятый, признанный
Free 1) свободный; 2) бесплатный
Spare 1) свободный; 2) запасный
Well-bred Хорошо воспитанный
ill-bred Плохо воспитанный

 

Практика

II. а) Сопоставьте каждое слово из левой колонки с его сино­нимом из правой колонки.

Punctually Proof
Take for granted Ability
Affirmation Exactly
Acceptance Importance
Capability Accept for granted
Significance request
Demand Recognition

 

б) Приведите в соответствие слова из левой колонки с их толкованием из правой колонки.

Courtesies (n) Habits  
Attitude (n) free or extra time  
Routines (n) polite behavior  
Foreigner (n) Unfamiliar person
Stranger (n) opinion about something
Spare time (n) Often
Budget time (v) Economical or proper use
Efficient (adj) citizen or native of another country
Frequently (adv) plan for future use of time

 

III. Прочитайте и переведите текст. Сделайте полный письменный перевод 2 и 3 абзацев.

English-Speaking Countries: Culture and Traditions The word "culture" has different meanings. It often refers to music, literature, art, and higher education. It also means the customs of a society and the way in which people interact with each other.

Every culture has certain basic ideas which everyone accepts for granted. These are fundamental things that everyone "knows" from his or her childhood, and which are automatic to the people who live in that culture. They include everything from the common courtesies and details of daily life to the deeper issues of a person's place in society, of family, of life and death.

When a person enters a new culture, the basic customs and ideas that he or she automatically accepted may no longer be true. The person faces a new set of customs and attitudes to try to understand. Let us learn some elements of English-speaking countries' culture and traditions.

Introducing yourself there is very simple: you state your name, where you live and your occupation. In a formal situation use your first and last names. At a party or in a social setting, use your first name only. Men are introduced to women, young people to older ones, old friends to newcomers, and young girls to married. Usually women are not presented to a man.

When introducing one says something like: "Mrs. Smith, may I introduce Mr. Brown" and then turning to Mrs. Smith simply says "Mrs. Smith". The usual response to the introduction is "How do you do?" which is a kind of greetings and not a question — very formal. One can say something less formal: "Nice to meet you," "I am glad to meet you," or "Happy to have met you." If you do not know a person's name, say "Sir" to a man or "Madam" to a woman. If a lady's marital status is unknown, she should be addressed as Ms [miz]. However, it would be much more civilized to learn a person's name and say: "Nice to meet you, Ms. Brown." People usually shake hands firmly especially when formally introduced, but they do not always shake hands with people they see often.

Certain types of behavior are expected in English-speaking countries. American identity is much bound up with home origins. Conversations between two Americans meeting abroad will commonly include an early focus on the home states or colleges, whereas this is unlikely with two Britons (assuming they talked to each other at all). Nicknames are much more often used in the USA than in Britain.

People in both countries consider time as an expensive object or material. They talk about it in many different ways. They save it, waste it, spend it, kill it. They have free time, leisure time, spare time. They invest in it and carefully budget it. Then never be late. It is not the custom to drop in on acquaintances without calling. Be polite and friendly in public places. Phrases like "Excuse me" and "I am sorry" are used far more frequently than in Russia. People there are also very concerned with grooming. Daily showers and a fresh set of clothes are the norm. Never ask persons their age. Smile and people will smile with you.

IV. Ответьте на вопросы.

1. What are the two meanings of the word "culture"?

2. How do you address strangers?

3. Introduce yourself formally.

4. Introduce yourself informally.

 

V. Бегло прочитав текст, выберите правильный вариант ответа.

The southeastern-most county or shire of England, running from London to the Channel, is Kent. Historically, this is the core of English history, with Dover — the principal access to the continent, Canterbury — the home of the English Church, and the Thames ports on its north border — the center of sea power and trading prosperity. It is one of the Home Counties and is often called the Garden of England both for its agricultural riches and for the lovely rolling hills in the North Downs that for many are the visual image of England itself, figuring in numberless works of literature.

Kent is ...

(A) the home of the English Church.

(B) the center of trading prosperity.

(C) the core of English history.

(D) the main access to the continent.

 

VI. Расставьте абзацы этого текста в правильном порядке. Первый абзац - это С.

 

A. The popularity of The Beatles and the other groups from the Merseybeat era contributes to Liverpool's status as a tourist destination; tourism forms a significant part of the city's modern economy. In 2007 the city celebrated its 800th anniversary, and in 2008 it held the European Capital of Culture title together with Stavanger, Norway.

B.Inhabitants of Liverpool are referred to as Liverpudlians but are also known as "Scousers", in reference to the local dish known as "scouse", a form of stew. The word "Scouse" has also become synonymous with the Liverpool accent and dialect. Liverpool's status as a port city has contributed to its diverse population, which draws from a wide range of peoples, cultures, and religions, particularly those from Ireland.

C.Liverpool is a city and metropolitan borough of Merseyside, England, along the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary. It was founded as a borough in 1207 and was granted city status in 1880. Liverpool has a population of 435,500, and lies at the centre of the wider Liverpool Urban Area, which has a population of 816,216.

D.Liverpool has more galleries and national museums than any other city in the United Kingdom apart from London. The Tate Liverpool gallery houses the modern art collection of the Tate in the North of England and was, until the opening of Tate Modern, the largest exhibition space dedicated to modern art in the United Kingdom. The FACT centre hosts touring multimedia exhibitions, whilst the Walker Art Gallery houses an extensive collection of Pre-Raphaelites. Sudley House contains another major collection of pre 20th century art, and the number of galleries continues to expand: Ceri Hand Gallery opened in 2008, exhibiting primarily contemporary art, and Liverpool University's Victoria Building was re-opened as a public art gallery and museum to display the University's artwork and historical collections which include the second-largest display of art by Audubon outside the US.

E.Historically a part of Lancashire, the urbanization and expansion of Liverpool were broadly brought about by the city's status as a major port. By the 18th century, trade from the West Indies, Ireland and mainland Europe coupled with close links with the Atlantic Slave Trade furthered the economic expansion of Liverpool. By the early 19th century, 40% of the world's trade passed through Liverpool's docks, contributing to Liverpool's rise as a major city.

F.In 2004, several areas throughout the city centre were granted World Heritage Site status by UNESCO. Referred to as the Liverpool Maritime Mercantile City, the site comprises six separate locations in the city including the Pier Head, Albert Dock and William Brown Street and includes many of the city's most famous landmarks.

VII. Верные реплики к данным высказываниям – это:

 

1. Sorry, I interrupted you. —

2. Could you hand me that file? —

3. I think it is going to rain. —

4. Thank you for a delicious meal. —

5. How about something to eat? —

6. Our team's lost the match. —

 

a) That’s a good idea.




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