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Word-Meaning in Syntagmatics and Paradigmatics



§ 40. Polysemy and Context..................................................................................... 47

§ 41. Lexical Context....................................................................... -................ 48

§ 42. Grammatical Context................................................................................. 49

§ 43. Extra-Linguistic Context (Context of Situation)........................................ 50

§ 44. Common Contextual Associations. Thematic Groups..................................... 50

Meaning Relations in Paradigmatics and Semantic Classification of Words

§ 45. Conceptual (or Semantic) Fields............................................................... 51

§ 46. Hyponymic (Hierarchical) Structures and Lexico-semantic Groups 53

§ 47. Semantic Equivalence and Synonymy ...................................................... 55

§ 48. Criteria of Synonymity.............................................................................. 57

§ 49. Patterns of Synonymic Sets in Modern English.............................................. 58

§ 50. Semantic Contrasts and Antonymy .......................................................... 59

§ 51. Semantic Similarity of Morphemes and Word-Families.................................. 61

§ 52. Summary and Conclusions ............................................................................. 62

III. WORD-GROUPS AND PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS

Some Basic Features of Word-Groups

§ 1.Lexical Valency (Collocability).......................................................................... 64

§ 2. Grammatical Valency ,....................................................................................... 66

Structure of Word-Groups

§ 3.Distribution as a Criterion of Classification....................................................... 67

Meaning of Word-Groups

§ 4.Lexical Meaning................................................................................................ 68

§ 5. Structural Meaning............................................................................................ 69

§ 6. Interrelation of Lexical and Structural Meaning in Word-Groups 69

Interdependence of Structure and Meaning in Word-Groups

§ 7. Syntactic Structure (Formula) and Pattern of Word-Groups ... 70

§ 8. Polysemantic and Monosemantic Patterns ......................................................... 71

§ 9. Motivation in Word-Groups............................................................................... 71

§ 10, Summaryand Conclusions.............................................................................. 72


Phraseological Units

§11. Free Word-Groups, Versus Set-Phrases. Phraseological Units, Idioms,

Word-Equivalents............................................................................................ 74

§ 12. Criteria of Stability and Lack of Motivation (Idiomaticity) ... 74

§ 13. Classification..................................................................................................... 75

§ 14. Some Debatable Points...................................................................................... 76

§ 15. Criterion of Function.......................................................................................... 79

§ 16. Phraseological Units and Idioms Proper............................................................ 80

§ 17. Some Debatable Points............................................................................. 81

§ 18. Criterion of Context........................................................................................... 82

§ 19. Some Debatable Points...................................................................................... 83

§ 20. Phraseology as a Subsystem of Language......................................................... 84

§ 21. Some Problems of the Diachronic Approach..................................................... 86

§ 22. Summary and Conclusions................................................................................ 88

IV. WORD-STRUCTURE

§ 1. Segmentation of Words into Morphemes ............................................................ 89

§ 2. Principles of Morphemic Analysis. Types of Word Segmentability 89

§ 3. Classification of Morphemes............................................................................... 92

§ 4. Procedure of Morphemic Analysis ..................................................................... 94

§ 5. Morphemic Types of Words ............................................................................... 95

§ 6. Derivative Structure ............................................................................................ 95

§ 7. Derivative Relations............................................................................................. 96

§ 8. Derivational Bases........................................................................... . . 97

§ 9. Derivational Affixes........................................................................................... 100

§ 10. Semi-Affixes.................................................................................................... 102

§ 11. Derivational Patterns.................................... ,.................................................. 103

§ 12. Derivational Types of Words........................................................................... 104

§ 13. Historical Changeability of Word-Structure .................................................... 105

§ 14. Summary and Conclusions............................................................................... 106

V. WORD-FORMATION

Various Ways of Forming Words

§ 1.Various Types and Ways of Forming Words..................................................... 108

§ 2. Word-Formation. Definition» Basic Peculiarities .............................................. 109

§ 3. Word-Formation as the Subject of Study . ........................................................ 111

§ 4. Productivity of Word-Formation Means ........................................................... 112

§ 5. Summary and Conclusions................................................................................. 114

Affixation

§ 6. Definition. Degree of Derivation. Prefixal and Suffixal Derivatives 114

§ 7. Prefixation. Some Debatable Problems ............................................................. 115

§ 8. Classification of Prefixes......................................................... ..... 117

§ 9. Suffixation. Peculiarities of Some Suffixes................................................ 119

§ 10. Main Principles of Classification ..................................................................... 120

§ 11. Polysemy and Homonymy .............................................................................. 121

§ 12. Synonymy........................................................................................................ 122

§ 13. Productivity...................................................................................................... 123

§ 14. Origin of derivational affixes............................................................................ 125

§ 15. Summary and Conclusions................................................................ . 126

Conversion

§ 16. Definition.................................................................................................. 127

§ 17. Synchronic Approach....................................................................................... 130


§ 18. Typical Semantic Relations.............................................................................. 131

§ 19. Basic Criteria of Semantic Derivation.............................................................. 133

§ 20. Diachronic Approach of Conversion. Origin............................................ 136

§ 21. Productivity. Traditional and Occasional Conversion. ...... 138

§ 22. Conversion and Sound-(Stress-) Interchange.................................................. 139

§ 23. Summary and Conclusions . . . ................................................................ 140

Word-Composition

§ 24. Compounding........................................................................................... 140

§ 25. Structure.................................................................................................... 141

§ 26. Meaning........................................................................................................... 143

§ 27. Structural Meaning of the Pattern.................................................................... 144

§ 28. The Meaning of Compounds. Motivation ....................................................... 145

§ 29. Classification................................................................................................... 146

§ 30. Relations between the ICs of Compounds....................................................... 146

§ 31. Different Parts of Speech ................................................................................ 147

§ 32. Means of Composition.............................................................................. 148

§ 33. Types of Bases................................................................................................ 149

§ 34. Correlation between Compounds and Free Phrases ........................................ 151

§ 35. Correlation Types of Compounds ................................................................... 154

§ 36. Sources of Compounds................................................................................... 158

§ 37. Summary and Conclusions ...................................................................... 158

VI. ETYMOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE ENGLISH WORD-STOCK

§ 1.Some Basic Assumptions.................................................................................. 160

Words of Native Origin

§ 2. Semantic Characteristics and Collocability........................................................ 162

§ 3. Derivational Potential.................................................................................. 162

§ 4. Summary and Conclusions................................................................................ 164

Borrowings

§ 5. Causes and Ways of Borrowing........................................................................ 164

§ 6. Criteria of Borrowings................................... . ■........................................... 165

§ 7. Assimilation of Borrowings........................................................................ 166

§ 8. Phonetic, Grammatical and Lexical Assimilation of Borrowings 167

§ 9. Degree of Assimilation and Factors Determining It........................................... 170

§ 10. Summary and Conclusions.............................................................................. 170

Interrelation between Native and Borrowed Elements

§ 11. The Role of Native and Borrowed Elements................................................... 171

§ 12. Influence of Borrowings................................................................................. 172

§ 13. Summary and Conclusions....................................................................... 175

VII. VARIOUS ASPECTS OF VOCABULARY UNITS AND REPLENISHMENT OF MODERN ENGLISH WORD-STOCK




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