According to the number of morphemes words are classified into monomorphic
and polymorphic. Monomorphiс or root-words consist of only one root-morpheme, e.g. small, dog, make, give,etc. All pоlуmоrphiс words according to the number of root-morphemes are classified into two subgroups: monoradical (or one-root words) and polyradical words, i.e. words which consist of two or more roots. Monoradical words fall into two subtypes: 1) radical-suffixal words, i.e. words that consist of one root-morpheme and one or more suffixal morphemes, e.g. acceptable, acceptability, blackish,etc.; 2)radical-prefixal words, i.e. words that consist of one root-morpheme and a prefixal morpheme, e.g. outdo, rearrange, unbutton,etc. and 3) prefixo-radical-suffixal, i.e. words which consist of one root, a prefixal and suffixal morphemes, e.g. disagreeable, misinterpretation,etc.
Polyradical words fall into two types: 1) polyradical words which consist of two or more roots with no affixational morphemes, e.g. book-stand, eye-ball, lamp-shade,etc. and 2) words which contain at least two roots and one or more affixational morphemes, e.g. safety-pin, wedding-pie, class-consciousness, light-mindedness, pen-holder,etc.
§ 6. Derivative Structure
The analysis of the morphemic composition of words defines the ultimate meaningful constituents (UCs), their typical sequence and arrangement, but it does not reveal the hierarchy of morphemes making up the word, neither does it reveal the way a word is constructed, nor how a new word of similar structure should be understood. The morphemic analysis does not aim at finding out the nature and arrangement of ICs which underlie the structural and the semantic type of the word, e.g. words unmanlyand discouragementmorphemically are referred to the same type as both are segmented into three UCs representing one root, one prefixational and one suffixational morpheme. However the arrangement and the nature
of ICs and hence the relationship of morphemes in these words is different — in unmanlythe prefixational morpheme makes one of the ICs, the other IC is represented by a sequence of the root and the suffixational morpheme and thus the meaning of the word is derived from the relations between the ICs un-and manly-(‘not manly’), whereas discouragementrests on the relations of the IC discourage-made up by the combination of the. prefixational and the root-morphemes and the suffixational morpheme -mentfor its second IC (’smth that discourages’). Hence we may infer that these three-morpheme words should be referred to different derivational types: unmanlyto a prefixational and discouragementto a suffixational derivative.
The nature, type and arrangement of the ICs of the word is known as its derivative structure. Though the derivative structure of the word is closely connected with its morphemic or morphological structure and often coincides with it, it differs from it in principle.
§ 7. Derivative Relations
According to the derivative structure all words fall into two big classes: simplexes or simple, non-derived words and complexes or derivatives. Simplexes are words which derivationally cannot’ be segmented into ICs. The morphological stem of simple words, i.e. the part of the word which takes on the system of grammatical inflections is semantically non-motivated land independent of other words, e.g. hand, come, blue,etc. Morphemically it may be monomorphic in which case its stem coincides with the free root-morpheme as in, e.g., hand, come, blue,etc. or polymorphic in which case it is a sequence of bound morphemes as in, e.g., anxious, theory, public,etc.
Derivatives are words which depend on some other simpler lexical items that motivate them structurally and semantically, i.e. the meaning and the structure of the derivative is understood through the comparison with the meaning and the structure of the source word. Hence derivatives are secondary, motivated units, made up as a rule of two ICs, i.e. binary units, e.g. words like friendliness, unwifely, school-masterish,etc. are made up of the ICs friendly + -ness, un- + wifely, schoolmaster+-ish.The ICs are brought together according to specific rules of order and arrangement preconditioned by the system of the language. It follows that all derivatives are marked by the fixed order of their ICs.
The basic elementary units of the derivative structure of words are: derivational bases, derivational affixes and derivational patterns which differ from the units of the morphemic structure of words (different types of morphemes). The relations between words with a common root but of different derivative structure are known as derivative relations. The derivative and derivative relations make the subject of study at the derivational level of analysis; it aims at establishing correlations between different types of words, the structural and semantic patterns
1 See ‘Semasiology’, § 17, p. 25. 96
words are built on, the study also enables one to understand how new words appear in the language.
The constituents of the derivative structure are functional units, i.e. units whose function is to indicate relationship between different classes of words or differently-behaving words of the same class and to signal the formation of new words. It follows that derivational functions are proper to different linguistic units which thus serve as ICs of a derivative. It must be also noted that the difference between classes of words is signalled by both the derivative structure of the word, or to be more exact by the stem it shapes, and by the set of paradigmatic inflections that this structure presupposes. For example, the nominal class of words to which derivatives like historian, teacher, lobbyist are referred is signalled by both the derivative structure, i.e. the unity of their ICs history+-ian, teach+ + -erlobby + -ist shaping the stems of these words — and the nominal set of paradigmatic inflections which these stems precondition, i.e. histori-an(O), historian(s), historian('s), historian(s’). The class of words like enrich, enlarge is likewise signalled by their derivative structure (en- + +rich, en-+large) and the verbal set of paradigmatic inflexions. Hence the paradigmatic systems of different classes of words have, among their functions, the function of distinguishing the formal make-up of word classes. It follows that the paradigmatic system of inflections in cases of meaningful absence of the 1С which determines the class membership of the motivated stem functions as the sole indication of its derived nature.1
§ 8. Derivational Bases
A derivational base as a functional unit is defined as the constituent to which a rule of word-formation is applied. It is the part of the word which establishes connection with the lexical unit that motivates the derivative and determines its individual lexical meaning describing the difference between words in one and the same derivative set, for example the individual lexical meaning of words like singer, rebuilder, whitewasher,etc. which all denote active doers of action, is signalled by the lexical meaning of the derivational bases sing-, rebuild-, whitewash-which establish connection with the motivating source verb.
Structurally derivational bases fall into three classes: 1) bases that coincide with morphological stems of different degrees of complexity, e.g. dutiful, dutifully; day-dream, to day-dream, daydreamer; 2) bases that coincide with word-forms; e.g. paper-bound, unsmiling, unknown; 3) bases that coincide with word-grоups of different degrees of stability, e ,g. second-rateness, flat-waisted, etc.
1. Bases built on stems of different degree of complexity make the largest ‘and commonest group of components of derivatives of various classes, e.g. un-button, girl-ish; girlish-ness, colour-blind-ness, ex-filmstar, etc. Bases of this class are functionally and semantically distinct from all kinds of stems. Functionally, the morphological stem is the part of the word which is the starting point for its forms, it is the
1 See ‘Word-Formation’, § 16, p. 127, 4 № 2775 97
part which semantically presents a unity of lexical and functional meanings thus predicting the entire grammatical paradigm. The stem remains unchanged throughout all word-forms, it keeps them together preserving the identity cf the word. Thus the stems in the above-given words are ex-filmstar, unbuttonwhich remain unchanged in all the forms of each word as, e.g., ex-filmstar(O), ex-filmstar(s), ex-filmstar(’s), ex-filmstar(s). Stems are characterised by a phonetic identity with the word-form that habitually represents the word as a whole (the common case singular, the infinitive, etc.).
A derivational base unlike a stem does not predict’ the part of speech of the derivative, it only outlines a possible range and nature of the second IC and it is only the unity of both that determines the lexical-grammatical class of the derivative. A derivational base is the starting-point for different words and its derivational potential outlines the type and scope of existing words and new creations. The nominal base for example, hand-gives rise to nouns, e.g. hand-rail, hand-bag, shorthand, handful,to adjectives, e.g. handy,or verbs, e.g. to hand.Similarly the base rich-may be one of the ICs of the noun richness,the adjective gold-rich,or the verb to enrich.
Semantically the stem stands for the whole semantic structure of the word, it represents all its lexical meanings. A base, semantically, is also different in that it represents, as a rule, only one meaning of the source word or its stem. The derivatives glassfuland glassy,e.g., though connected with the stem of the same source word are built on different derivational bases,, as glassfulis the result of the application of the word-formation rule to the meaning of the source word ‘drinking vessel or its contents’, whereas glassy — to the meaning ‘hard, transparent, easily-broken substance’. Derivatives fiery, fire-place, to fire, fire-escape, firearm,all have bases built on the stem of the same source noun fire,but the words like fire-escape fire-engineand fire-alarmare semantically motivated by the meaning ‘destructive burning’, the words firearms, ceasefire, (to) fireare motivated by another meaning ’shooting’, whereas the word fiery(as in fiery speech, eyes)is motivated by the meaning ’strong emotion, excited feeling’. The same difference can be exemplified by the words starlet, starry, starlike, starlesswhich are all motivated by the derivational base meaning ‘a heavenly body seen in the night as distant point of light’, as compared to stardom, starlet, to starmotivated by the base meaning ‘a person famous as actor, singer’ though both represent the same morphological stem of the word star.
Stems that serve as this class of bases may themselves be different morphemically and derivationally thus forming derivational bases of different degrees of complexity which affects the range and scope of their collocability and their derivational capacity. Derivationally the stems may be:
a) simple, which consist of only one, semantically nonmotivated constituent. The most characteristic feature of simple stems in Modern English is the phonetic and graphic identity with the root-morpheme and the word-form that habitually represents the word as a whole.
As has been mentioned elsewherelsimple stems may be both monomorphic units and morphemic sequences made up of bound and pseudo-morphemes, hence morphemically segmentable stems in such words as pocket, motion, retain, horrible,etc. should be regarded as derivationally simple.
b) derived stems are semantically and structurally motivated, and are the results of the application of word-formation rules; it follows that they are as a rule binary, i.e. made up of two ICs, and polymorphic, e.g. the derived stem of the word girlishis understood on the basis of derivative relations between girland girlish;the derived stem of a greater complexity girlishnessis based on the derivative relations between girlishand girlishness. This is also seen in to weekend, to daydreamwhich are derived from the nouns week-endand day-dreamand are motivated by the derivative relations between the noun and the verb.2
Derived stems, however, are not necessarily polymorphic.
It especially concerns derivatives with a zero IC, i.e. meaningful absence of the derivational means in which case the distinction between the stem of the source word and the motivated stem of the derivative is signalled by the difference in paradigmatic sets of inflections which they take.3
For example, the stem of the verb (to) parrot,though it consists of one overt constituent and is a one-morpheme word, should be considered derived as it is felt by a native speaker as structurally and semantically dependent on the simple stem of the noun parrotand because it conveys a regular relationship between these two classes of words — verbs and nouns 4. The same is true of the stems in such words as (to) winter, a cut, a drive,etc.
c) compound stems are always binary and semantically motivated, but unlike the derived stems both ICs of compound stems are stems themselves. The derivative structure and morphemic composition of each IC may be of different degree of complexity, for example, the compound stem of the noun match-boxconsists of two simple stems, the stem of the noun letter-writer — of one simple and one derived stem, and the stem aircraft-carrier — of a compound and derived stem.
The structural complexity of the derivational bases built on derived and compound stems is a heavy constraint imposed on the collocability and semantic freedom of these bases and consequently on their derivative potential. Compare, for example, the derivational capacity of the simple stem girl,which can give rise to girly, girlish, girlless, girl-friend,and the limited capacity of girlish which gives only girlishnessand girlishly.
2. The second class of derivational bases is made up of word-forms. It is obvious that word-forms functioning as parts of the word lose all syntactic properties they possess in independent use. This class of bases is confined to verbal word-forms — the present and the past participles — which regularly function as ICs of non-simple adjectives, adverbs and nouns. The collocability of this class of derivational bases is confined to
1 See ‘Word-Structure’, § 7, p. 96.
2 See ‘Word-Formation’, §§ 16,'p. 127.
3 See ‘Word-Structure’, § 7, p. 96.
4 See ‘Word-Formation’, § 18, p. 131.
just a few derivational affixes such as the prefix un-, the suffix -ly, ine.g. unnamed, unknown, unwrapped,etc., smilingly, knowingly,etc. The derivational bases in question may be also collocated with other bases which coincide only with nominal and adjectival stems, e.g. mockingbird, dancing-girl, ice-bound, time-consuming, ocean-going, easy-going,etc.
3. The third class of derivational bases is made up of word-groups. Free word-groups make up the greater part of this class of bases. Like word-forms, word-groups serving as derivational bases lose their morphological and syntactic properties proper to them as self-contained lexical units. Bases of this class also allow of a rather limited range of collocability, they are most active with derivational affixes in the class of adjectives and nouns, e.g. in words like blue-eyed, long-fingered, old-worldish, dogooder, second-rateness,etc.
Thus, we may conclude that each class of bases, though it makes use of one of the structural units of vocabulary, is distinct from it and differs from it both in form and meaning. The greater the degree of structural complexity of the base the more limited its derivative potential.
§ 9. Derivational Affixes
Derivational affixes are ICs of numerous derivatives in all parts of speech. Derivational affixes differ from affixational morphemes in their function within the word, in their distribution and in their meaning. Derivational affixes possess two basic functions: 1) that of stem-building which is common to all affixational morphemes: derivational and non-derivational. It is the function of shaping a morphemic sequence, or a word-form or a phrase into the part of the word capable of taking a set of grammatical inflections and is conditioned by the part-of-speech meaning these morphemes possess; 1 2) that of word-building which is the function of repatterning a derivational base and building a lexical unit of a structural and semantic type different from the one represented by the source unit. The repatterning results in either transferring it into the stem of another part of speech or transferring it into another subset within the same part of speech. For example, the derivational suffix -nessapplied to bases of different classes shapes derived stems thus making new words. In kindliness, girlishness,etc. it repatterns the adjectival stems kindly-, girlish-,in second-rate-ness, allatoncenessit turns the phrases second rate, all at onceinto stems and consequently forms newnouns. In most cases derivational affixes perform both functions simultaneously shaping derived stems and marking the relationship between different classes of lexical items. However, certain derivational affixes may in individual sets of words perform only one function that of stem-building. The derivational suffix -icfor example performs bothfunctions in words like historic, economic, classicas it is applied to bases history-, economy-, class-and forms stems of words of a different part of speech. But the same suffix -icin public, comic, musicperforms only its stem-building function shaping in this case a simple
1See ‘Semasiology’, § 17, p. 25, 100
stem.1 The same is true of the suffix -ousin such words as joyous, courageous, famousas compared with anxious, conscious, curious.Stem-building is the common function shared by both derivational and non-derivational morphemes, but with the non-derivational morphemes it is the only structural function. Besides, the non-derivational affixes shape only simple stems, for example, the morpheme -idin stupid, rapid, acid, humid;the morpheme -ishin publish, distinguish, languish.It follows that non-derivational morphemes are not applied to stems, but only to root-morphemes or morpheme sequences.
Semantically derivational affixes are characterised by a unity of part-of-speech meaning, lexical meaning and other types of morphemic meanings2 unlike non-derivational morphemes which, as a rule, lack the lexical type of meaning. It is true that the part-of-speech meaning is proper in different degrees to the derivational suffixes and prefixes. It stands out clearly in derivational suffixes but it is less evident in prefixes; some prefixes lack it altogether, in others it is very vague and in this case it finds expression in the fact that these prefixes tend to function in either nominal or verbal parts of speech. Prefixes like en-, un-, de-, out-, be-, unmistakably possess the part-of-speech meaning and function as verb classifiers when they make an independent IC of the derivative, e.g. deice, unhook, enslave;derivational prefixes a-, un-possess the adjectival part-of-speech meaning, e.g. unhesitating, unknown, unkind,etc., amoral, asynthetic, asymmetric,etc. In prefixes со-, under-, mis-this type of meaning is vague but they tend to be active in one part of speech only:’ со-in nominal parts of speech (i.e. nouns and adjectives), e.g. copilot, co-star, co-president; mis-and under-are largely verbal prefixes, e.g. underwork, underdo, underfeed,etc. The prefix over-evidently lacks the part-of-speech meaning and is freely used both for verbs and adjectives, the same may be said about non-, pre-, post-.The lexical meaning in derivational affixes also has its peculiarities and may be viewed at different levels.3
1) The lexical (denotational) meaning of a generic type proper mostly not to an individual affix but to a set ofaffixes, forming a semantic subset such as, for example, the meaning of resemblance found in suffixes -ish, -like, -y, -ly (spiderish, spiderlike, spidery);the causative meaning proper to the prefix en- (enslave, enrich),the suffixes –ise (-ize), -(i)fy (brutalise, formalise, beautify, simplify,etc.); the meaning of absence conveyed by the prefix un-and the suffix -less;the meaning of abstract quality conveyed by the suffixes -ness, -ity,etc.
2) On the other hand derivational affixes possess another type of lexical meaning — an individual meaning shared by noother affix and thus distinguishing this particular affix from all other members, of the same semantic group. For example, suffixes -ish, -like,-y all have the meaning of resemblance, but -likeconveys an overall resemblance,
1 See ‘Word-Structure’, § 8, p. 97.
2 See ‘Semasiology’, §§ 13-16, pp. 23-25.
3 See also ‘Methods ...,§§ 3, 4, p. 245, 246.
-ishconveys likeness to the inner, most typical qualities of the object, -y in most cases conveys likeness to outer shape, form, size of the object. Suffixes -er, -istboth possess the meaning of the agent, but the distinguishing feature of the suffix -er is that it conveys the meaning of the active doer (animate or inanimate), whereas -istconveys the meaning of profession (flutist, biologist)and followers of principles and beliefs (socialist, leftist)and thus has the meaning only of human beings. Derivational affixes semantically may be both mono- and polysemantic.
Derivational affixes are highly selective and each is applied to a specific set of bases which is due to the distributional type of meaning found in all affixes. All affixes are selective as to the structural peculiarities of bases (their morphemic, derivational, phonological and etymological features), some in addition are highly responsive to the lexical-semantic properties of the bases they are collocated with. For example, the adjectival suffix -ableis collocated with verbal bases with practically no semantic constraints imposed on them. On the other hand the adjective-forming suffix -ful1is restricted in its collocability to nominal bases of abstract meaning (useful, beautiful),while its homonym the noun-forming -ful2 also collocating with nominal bases chooses bases of concrete meaning and within this class only nouns which have in their semantic structure a semantic component ‘container’ (chestful, lungful, bagful).
§ 10. Semi-Affixes
There is a specific group of morphemes whose derivational function does not allow one to refer them unhesitatingly either to the derivational affixes or bases. In words like half-done, half-broken, half-eatenand ill-fed, ill-housed, ill-dressedthe ICs half-and ill-are given in linguistic literature different interpretations: they are described both as bases and as derivational prefixes. The comparison of these ICs with the phonetically identical stems in independent words illand halfas used in such phrases as to speak ill of smb, half an hour agomakes it obvious that in words like ill-fed, ill-mannered, half-donethe ICs ill-and half-are losing both their semantic and structural identity with the stems of the independent words. They are all marked by a different distributional meaning which is clearly revealed through the difference of their collocability as compared with the collocability of the stems of the independently functioning words. As to their lexical meaning they have become more indicative of a generalising meaning of incompleteness and poor quality than the individual meaning proper to the stems of independent words and thus they function more as affixational morphemes similar to the prefixes out-, over-, under-, semi-, mis-regularly forming whole classes of words. Besides, the high frequency of these morphemes in the above-mentioned generalised meaning in combination with the numerous bases built on past participles indicates their closer ties with derivational affixes than bases. Yet these morphemes retain certain lexical ties with the root-morphemes in the stems of independent words and that is why are felt as occupying an intermediate position,1 as morphemes that are changing their
1 See also ‘Word-Structure’, § 3, p. 92. 102
class membership regularly functioning as derivational prefixes but still retaining certain features of root-morphemes. That is why they are sometimes referred to as semi-affixes. To this group we should also refer well-and self- (well-fed, well-done, self-made), -manin words like postman, cabman, chairman, -lookingin words like foreign-looking, alive-looking, strange-looking,etc.
§ 11. Derivational Patterns
Neither bases nor affixes alone can predict all the structural and semantic properties of words the ICs of which they may be. It is the combination of bases and affixes that makes up derivatives of different structural and semantic classes. Both bases and affixes due to the distributional meaning they possess show a high degree of consistency in their selection and are collocated according to a set of rules known as derivational patterns. Aderivational pattern is a regular meaningful arrangement, a structure that imposes rigid rules on the order and the nature of the derivational bases and affixes that may be brought together. A pattern is a generalisation, a scheme indicative of the type of ICs, their order and arrangement which signals the part of speech, the structural and semantic peculiarities common to all the individual words for which the pattern holds true. Hence the derivational patterns (DP) may be viewed as classifiers of non-simple words into structural types and within them into semantic sets and subsets. DPs are studied with the help of distributional analysis at different levels. Patterns of derivative structures are usually represented in a generalised way in terms of conventional symbols: small letters v, n, a, d, пит stand for the bases which coincide with the stems of the respective parts of speech: verbs, nouns, adjectives, adverbs, numerals; ved, vingstand for the bases which are the past and present participles respectively. In words of the long-fingeredor sit-innertype the derivational bases are represented by bracketed symbols of the parts of speech making up the corresponding collocations, for example (a+n)+ +-ed), (v+d) + er.