AIDS, acquired immune deficiency syndrome, is an epidemic that has already killed thousands of people worldwide. It is a life threatening disease and has become a major public health issue. The AIDS virus is contagious and is found in several body fluids. It is transmitted from one person to another primarily through sexual contact, but the virus can also be contracted through sharing intravenous needles and syringes. The AIDS virus attacks the immune system and interferes with a person's ability to fight off other diseases. With a compromised immune system, the person is at greater risk for becoming infected by bacteria, and other viruses, which may lead to life threatening diseases such as pneumonia, meningitis and cancer.
The two most frequently seen AIDS related infections are pneumocystic carinii pneumonia (PCP) and Kaposi's sarcoma. A patient with PCP will experience a persistent cough, fever, shortness of breath, and difficulty breathing. Multiple purple blotches and bumps on the skin maybe a sign of Kaposi's sarcoma. The AIDS virus may also attack the nervous system, causing damage to the brain. These patients may experience memory loss, indifference, loss of coordination, and partial paralysis or mental disorders.
AIDS still remains a mysterious disease in many ways, but researchers have been able to identify how AIDS affects the body on a cellular level. The AIDS virus enters the blood stream and attacks specific white blood cells called
T-Lymphocytes. After attacking the T-lymphocytes, the virus multiples. The T-Lymphocytes are then no longer able to work as cell defenders. The immune system becomes weakened allowing the body to become more prone to many diseases. There is currently no cure or vaccine for the AIDS virus.
Knowing the facts about AIDS can prevent the spread of the disease. People must be responsible for their sexual behavior and must avoid the use of intravenous drugs. AIDS has a great impact on certain segments of the population. Homosexual men are at greater risk, аs are people who have multiple sexual partners. Also at risk are any children born to women who carry the virus. Nurses must educate people on how AIDS is transmitted, the risks of infection, and how to prevent it.
2. NOW READ THE TEXT CAREFULLY TO BE ABLE TO DO EXERCISES AND DISCUSS IT IN DETAIL
VOCABULARY AND GRAMMAR EXERCISES
I. Review your vocabulary
1. Read the following words aloud. Mind that letter g is usually pronounced as [d ] before e, i, у and as [g] in other cases. But there are exceptions.
1. Which words or expressions from the text mean the same as the following?
all over the world often
dangerous for life to feel
above all to get into
to get virus to become predisposed to
to cure / to recover from influence
2. Write out from the text combinations with the words “disease” and “virus”. Translate them.
3. Find in the text English equivalents of the following Russian words and word-combinations.
Синдром приобретённого иммунного дефицита; опасное для жизни заболевание; контагиозный /заразный вирус; передаваться от одного человека другому; заразиться инфекционной болезнью; поражать/воздействовать на иммунную систему, пневмония, менингит; страдать / испытывать непрекращающийся кашель, отдышку, пятна и шишки; вызывать повреждения мозга; потеря памяти; потеря координации; безразличие / индифферентность к... ; частичный паралич; умственное расстройство; поражать органы на клеточном уровне; распространение заболевания; применять лекарство / наркотик внутривенно.
III. Grammar review
1. Fill in the appropriate modal verb (can, may, must, can, may).
1. People ... be responsible for their sexual behavior.
2. The AIDS virus ... also attack the nervous system.
3. Knowing the facts about AIDS ... prevent the spread of the disease.
4. The AIDS virus ... be transmitted from one person to another primarily through sexual contact.
5. Multiple purple blotches and bumps on the skin ... be a sign of Kaposi's sarcoma.
1. What does the word in italics in the following sentences refer to?
1. AIDS is an epidemic that has already killed thousands of people worldwide. It is a life threatening disease and has become a major public issue.
2. The AIDS virus is contagious and is found in several body fluids. It is transmitted from one person to another primarily through sexual contact.
3. It is the AIDS virus that attacks the immune system and interferes with a person's ability to fight off other diseases.
4. Meningitis is one of the diseases which the person with a compromised immune system is at a greater risk for.
5. It is necessary to know the facts about Al DS to prevent the spread of the disease.
2. Ask questions to which the following sentences are answers.
1. The most frequently seen AIDS related infections are pneumocystic carinii pneumonia and Kaposi’s sarcoma.
2. A patient with PCP will experience a persistent cough, fever, shortness of breath, and difficulty breathing.
3. After attacking the T-Lymphocytes the virus multiples.
4. People must be responsible for their sexual behavior and must avoid the use of intravenous drugs.
5. Nurses must educate people on now AIDS is transmitted, the risks of infection, and how to prevent if.
1 QUICK READING:
Look through the text and find
a) why nurses must understand the emotional aspects of an AIDS infected person;
b) what physical care needs of the AIDS patient include.
NURSING CARE OF THE AIDS PATIENT
Nursing care of the AIDS patient is applied from a knowledge base. Four areas of knowledge that impact nursing care of people with AIDS are: The nurse's own knowledge of AIDS, the nurse's knowledge of safety when dealing with the AIDS patient, emotional aspects of caring for the AIDS patient, physical care of the person with AIDS. Protective measures should always be used when dealing with the AIDS patient or with a person at risk for AIDS. The protective measures depend on the situation. Wear gloves when there is the possibility of exposure to blood and other body fluids. Wear mask, gown, and possibly goggles (защитные очки) when suctioning a patient or helping with procedures that involve body fluids. When nursing care does not involve direct contact with body fluid, no protective coverings are needed.
The knowledge that nurses need for making their nursing care sensitive and personal begins with understanding something about the people who have been most at risk for this illness. The largest number of people who have developed AIDS (homosexual males and IV drug users) are involved in lifestyles that are unfamiliar to most nurses. The issue here in not whether nurses approve of these lifestyles, but whether they have a specific knowledge base to provide adequate care. As nurses increase their knowledge base, they will want to examine their own attitudes, so they can identify biases that may impede giving high quality cure to their patients. Nurses must understand the emotional aspects of an AIDS infected person. These people face anxiety and depression brought on by fears associated with isolation, illness, and dying. Many AIDS patients contemplate suicide. Dealing with these individual and family concerns is indeed a challenge for the nurse and requires sensitivity, understanding, and professionalism.
When addressing the physical care needs of the AIDS patient, the nurse must keep in mind the importance of adequate nutrition, skin protection, and hygiene. Nurses need to know how to administer the complex technology of treatment that patients with AIDS require such as chemotherapy and total parenteral nutrition. Since AIDS was first diagnosed in 1981, the medical community has gained extensive knowledge about this life threatening illness, yet it continues to kill thousands each year. An enormous challenge to public health lies ahead of us and we must look toward the future. We must prepare to manage those situations we can predict as well as those we cannot. At the present time there is no vaccine to prevent AIDS. There is no cure. AIDS, which can be transmitted sexually and by sharing needles and syringes, is bound to produce profound changes in our society that will surely affect us all.
2. NOW READ THE TEXT WITH A DICTIONARY TO BE ABLE TO DO EXERCISES AND DISCUSS IT IN DETAIL
VOCABULARY AND GRAMMAR EXERCISES
I. Review your vocabulary
1. Read the following words aloud. Mind that letter “x” is somtimes pronounced as [ks ] and sometimes as [gz], and sometimes especially before a stressed vowel – as [z ].
The light of a small magnesium bulb can neutralize the activity of AIDS viruses. Moscow scientists obtained this unexpected result in their experiments. They took blood tests of people infected and not infected with the HIV virus, and exposed them to the magnesium light for about 1.5 hours. The cells infected by the virus gradually recovered.
The magnesium atom plays a vital role in the DNA in the chain reactions which take place during the virus's reproduction, and can help stop it. Magnesium absorbs light of a certain critical wavelength. When heated, it releases this light. Hence the idea to bombard the magnesium inside the virus with a magnesium light. The experiment was a success and magnesium light could well play a role in combatting this dangerous infection.