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Бухгалтерский учёт
Войное дело

Ancient Egyptians houses

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Сivil engineer’s work

The spaces between the foundations walls are filled with concrete. This is sometimes used as a base for the floor of the building. The man who builds walls is called a bricklayer. The bricks are stuck together with mortar. To make the walls stronger the bricks must over lap catch other. This is called binding. When the walls are just above the ground a layer of waterproof belt or slate is laid. This is called a damp-proof course and stops damp in the ground passing to the rest of the house. As the bricklayer works he often looks at the plans. Then he will know where to build the doors, windows and ventilators. A carpenter now begins to work. He is the man who does the rough woodwork of the house. When the walls are at the level of the first floor he puts in the wooden floor joists. These are strong wooden beams which will carry me upstairs floors and hold up the ceilings in the downstairs rooms. Then the joiner fixes the window-ledges and when the walls are plastered he fixes the doors and other wood work.


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How do you use the Internet?


Quentin: I am doing a school project about sharks. I have found out lots of interesting facts about them. Did you know that they can smell a small drop of blood in water at a distance of 100 meters? The last time I logged on I ordered a book called Sharks in the Caribbean.

William: I am looking for a job and I’ve got an interview next week. So this morning I did some preparation. I searched some websites to find out about the company: what they do and what kind of place they are. It’s good to be prepared.

Eileen: I often go away on business and in the evenings to relax I use an instant message service to contact people I know. It’s great fun. You type your message and wait for the other person to reply. It’s probably not suitable for work because it’s not very private.

Rosanna: Before going away in summer, I like to use search engines to find out about destinations. I check the weather, transportation, hotels, and places to visit and so on. I always organize everything myself because it is much more satisfying.

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The Renaissance

The Renaissance style of architecture made a very timid appearance in England during the first half of the 16thcentury, and it was only from about 1550 that it became a positive stylewith local qualities. In fact, the Gothic style continued in many parts of England throughout most of the 16thcentury, and English Renaissance architecture was a very original fusion of the Tudor Gothic and classical styles. The Renaissance style really begins in England in the middle of the 16thcentury in architecture built for the circle of the Lord Protector Somerset. A typical example of the Renaissance style of England is to be found in the quadrangle that John Caius added to Gonville Hall at Cambridge. The architecture of the new court was basically Tudor Gothic, but Caius planned three gateways in connection with the court, two of which were in Italian style. The three gates were to mark the progress of the student through the university. At the entrance was the Gate of Humility (1565), a modest doorway, now in the Master's garden. The Gate of Virtue (after 1565), opening into the new quadrangle, is a fine classical portal with Ionic pilasters, but with a Tudor Gothic many-centered arch for the opening. Finally, the Gate of Honor (1573) is a separate tiny triumphal arch leading out toward the schools for the final disputation and degree.

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Ancient Egyptians houses

The ancient Egyptians built very simple houses by present standards. Having dried the bricks in the sun, they put up four walls, and above these they placed a flat roof. The roof was flat because there was very little rain in Egypt. Although their buildings were simple in construction, the Egyptian art of building was very beautiful. Their pyramids and monuments, sphinxes and palaces arouse our wonder to this day. An important part in the history of building has been played by the column, and it was ancient Egypt that gave the world its first lessons in the art of making columns. The Greeks learned much from Egypt. But they did not borrow the flat roof. They built a slanting roof because there was much rain in their country. The Greeks made the roof slant in two directions from the middle. They also improved on Egypt's columns and soon became the teachers of the world in column making. The Romans, in turn, learned much from the Greeks. First of all, they borrowed the slanting roof and the columns. But they added the arch, thus adding much strength arid beauty to their buildings.


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